History: How did the Romans try to Prevent Crime?

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What crimes could citizens be put to death for? (4)
Arson, attacking the Emperor, robbing temples and stealing farm animals.
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What two punishments could you receive for committing minor crimes such as theft or selling underweight bread?
Repaying the cost of goods or confiscation of property.
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What was the punishment for nobles who commit serious crimes?
They could be sentenced to death but they were allowed to go into exile and avoid prosecution.
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What was the punishment for a slave who killed or tried to kill their master?
All the slaves in a household were crucified.
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Could slaves give evidence at a trial? What were the conditions of this?
Yes but they had to be tortured first.
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What was the punishment for legionnaires who ran away from battle?
They faced execution, and also one in ten men from the legion that they ran away from was chosen by lot and also executed. This decimation was carried out ruthlessly.
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Was imprisonment used as a punishment?
NO - it was only for people in debt or who were awaiting trial or execution.
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What punishments were common?
Violet ones.
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What punishment would you receive if you were convicted of patricide? What is patricide?
Patricide is killing your father - the punishment was being tied in a sack with a number of snakes and thrown into the river to drown.
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What happened to Roman punishments as time passed? Give two examples.
They became more violent, including amputation limbs and death by pouring molten lead down the convicted person's throat.
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Over time, what became the punishment for Christians and Jews who refused to recognise the Emperor as God?
Crucifixion.
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Describe the process if someone committed a minor crime.
At a magistrates' court a judge was chosen - he wasn't a lawyer although he could take advice from lawyers - and both sides presented their evidence. Then the judge reached his decision.
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What were the three basic principle at work in Roman Trials?
1. Any Roman citizen could bring a case to court. 2. The defendant was innocent until proved guilty. 3. The defendant had the right to present evidence.
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Describe the process if someone committed a major crime.
Cases were tried by magistrates but with a jury. Anyone could bring a case to court for trial. When the suspect appeared, both sides gave evidence ad then the jury decided if he or she was guilty. The magistrate then decided the sentence.
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Who and how many vigiles were there?
7,000 and they patrolled the streets and their duties combined fire-fighting , crime prevention and capturing runaway slaves.
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Who and how many Urban cohorts were there?
3,000, there were soldiers. Their main job was to keep order by stopping riots. They did not patrol the streets.
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Who were the Praetorian Guard?
The Emperor's household guard were used only in emergencies to protect the Emperors from riots.
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Was stealing considered a minor or major crime? Why?
Minor because it didn't affect the ruler or the majority of people.
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If you had been burgled who would help you?
Nobody, not even the police force. You had to find the criminal, collect evidence and take the accused to court yourself.
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Was there a police force in the city?
No.
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If you were attacked/robbed who did you have to rely on? What did this often lead to?
Friends and neighbours to catch the attacker or thief. This often led to more violence.
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When were the three kinds of police force set up? Why? Did it work?
In AD6 by Emperor Augustus because of friends and neighbours helping in situations of attacks and burglaries often led to more violence. But it didn't work, nothing really changed.
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Were Roman Crimes very detailed or not?
Yes, they dealt with every possible crime. There were also laws to make Rome a better place to live.
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Name two laws which tried to make Rome a better place to live?
Householders had to keep the pavements and streets outside their homes clean. Dumping waste in the River Tiber was illegal, and so was starting fires - there was always great danger of fires spreading rapidly and destroying hundreds of homes.
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What was the first recorded Roman Law? When? Who had to learn them?
The Twelve Tables - written down in c.450BC. Which children at school had to learn them by heart.
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What could be seen a great achievement? - to do with laws
In AD533 - when Emperor Justinian brought all the different laws together, simplifying and organising them into one system. (Justinian's Digest)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What two punishments could you receive for committing minor crimes such as theft or selling underweight bread?

Back

Repaying the cost of goods or confiscation of property.

Card 3

Front

What was the punishment for nobles who commit serious crimes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the punishment for a slave who killed or tried to kill their master?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Could slaves give evidence at a trial? What were the conditions of this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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