History- Conqueror and Conquest

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  • Created by: EmilyA-J
  • Created on: 12-04-14 11:12
When did Edward the Confessor reign and then die?
1042- 5th January 1066.
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Who were the three contenders for the throne?
William Duke of Normandy (The kings cousin), Harold Godwinsson (The kings brother in law), Harald Hardrada (King of Norway and Earl of Wessex).
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What does the title Earl mean?
Man of noble birth.
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What is a Hide?
The measurement of productive agricultural land that was taxable.
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There was a fourth contender for the English throne who was he?
Edgar Atheling.
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What was the succession crisis of 1066?
The crisis that followed the death of Edward the Confessor without a son and heir. It was resolved by the Norman invasion led by William Duke of Normandy.
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Why was Edward's marriage childless?
It is said that Edward remained chaste throughout his married life.
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How was William offered the throne of England?
It is not known whether it was William's visit to England in the winter of 1051/52 or Edward sending Robert of Jumieges (Archbishop of Canterbury) to offer William the throne of England.
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What did Harold promise to William?
Harold was sent by Edward to swear an oath of fealty to William and confirm the offer of succession in 1052.
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What is a vassal?
A vassal swore an oath of loyalty, or homage, to his lord, who swore a return oath to defend his vassal. This contract, enhanced by the personal bond of homage, tied feudal relationships together.
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Who swore to become a vassal to William?
Harold Godwinsson on the order of Edward.
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When was the Bayeux Tapestry made?
1070's.
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Did Edward offer the throne to Harold?
It is unclear whether he did or didn't as the Bayeux Tapestry shows Harold and Edward on his death bed talking, possibly discussing who was to become king, Edward died and with no witnesses Harold's word was that Edward had given him the crown.
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Was Harold crowned king?
On the 6th of January the day after Edwards death and the day of his funeral Harold was crowned king of England much to the other contenders to the thrones disgust.
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When Harold returned to Normandy in 1064/5 what happened?
Edward may have sent him to renew his friendship treaty, or Harold may have been tricked or forced into making an oath he had no intention of keeping.
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Who were the Witenagemot?
The Kings advisors.
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How did William prepare for invasion on England religiously?
Gained support of the Pope after he sent Lanfranc to Rome, he could now ride into battle with the papal banner above his head.
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How did William prepare for invasion on England- Military?
Men were fed, horses provisioned, ships built, arms and armour manufactured.
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How did Harold prepare for invasion?
Fyrd commissioned- had to leave due to harvest needed collecting.
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Battle of Gate Fulford...
Harald Hardrada, Edwin and Morcar. Battle in York Edwin and Morcar fought for Harold but were ultimately defeated.
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Battle of Stamford bridge...
Harold marched to Harald and took him by surprise, Harald was killed and it is said that only 24 of the original 300 ships were needed to take the remainder of the Viking army home.
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When did William arrive in Pevensey?
28th September 1066.
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Harold Godwinsson and troops travelled where and on what date before arriving in Hastings?
London 6th October- 11th October, South Downs 13th October.
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When was the Battle of Hastings?
14 the October 1066.
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Why did the Normans find it so hard to defeat Harold?
Sheild wall and the army was ontop of a hill where as the Normans were at the bottom of the hill, Harold had the advantage.
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What was a Housecarl?
The king and his earls often kept soldiers in their households who provided them with a bodyguard and formed the heart of their armies in time of war when they are expected to fight to the last man.
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Harold's tactics and troops?
7000 men. All fought on foot. Housecarls wore chain-mail coat and conical helmet.Prize weapon was the two- handed axe. Three foot high shields made a shield wall protecting them all from the Normans.
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William's tactics and troops?
Horses. Flat bottomed boats. Several thousand men on horseback.
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The battle, what happened?1
9am battle began, Will's archers fired up to the shield wall but it made no impact, Will's then sent in the feared cavalry, Horses wer trained to kick and bite humans, Shield wall held firm, Normans looked for holes in the shield wall but there .....
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The battle what happened... continued..2
were none, men retreated as the throught will's was dead but he wasn't and he showed the men around him the by taking off his helmet. The feigned retreat was used at least twice to attempt to get the English off the hill, English peasents began to...
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The battle, what happened.. continued...3
desert, Will's ordered the archers to fire arrows high in the air over the shield wall, this worked and harold was shot by an arrow in the eye and then hacked into pieces to death. Will's won the battle.
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What 5 things helped William win the battle of Hastings?
Logistics and circumstances, Harold's mistakes, Generalship, William was lucky, The Holy war/religion.
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How did Harold die?
Shot in the eye with an arrow and then hacked to death by Normans.
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When was William crowned King of England?
Christmas day 1066.
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Was there any resistance immediately after the battle to William and who would become the king?
Yes, Archbishop Stigand immediately put forward Edgar Atheling as the new king but this didn't happen as William became king.
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What year did William leave England to return to Normandy and what was significant about this date?
1067- start of the rebellions.
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Why did William build the castles?
To underpin his occupation he built hunderds of castles all over the kingdom garrisoned with armed, mounted troops.
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After what year was it seen that the first stage of William's conquest complete?
1075 after the rebellions of his earls.
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Who did William leave England in the hands of whilst he was away?
His cousin, William FitzOsbern and his half brother, Odo Bishop of Bayeux.
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Rebellion of 1067?
The Welsh border- Edric 'The wild' raised a revolt in herefordshire along the welsh border. Failed to take control of the border and returned to Wales with a lot of booty.
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Rebellion of 1068?
The South-West- City of Exeter refused to accept William as ruler. 18 day seige and they then accepted him.
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Rebellion of 1069-70?
The North- Rebels burned to death Norman Earl Robert of Commines at his house in Durham. The rebels spread to York and the Norman garrison came under attack. Willaim stormed North to relieve the garrision. In the summer a viking army landed and ...
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Rebellion of 1069-70? continued...
moved to York and built up a large resistance force to William, they even involved the Scots by marrying Edgar Atheling to the King of Scotland's sister Margaret.
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The 'Harrying of the North'...
This was William's reaction to the rebels. He marched north devastating the countryside, slaughtering all adult males.He burned York and after christmas set about the destruction of yorkshire. There were rotting corpses in the streets and disease...
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The 'Harrying of the North'... continued...
and famine struck everyone. This was still spoken about 50 years after the event and the land was so devastated that it couldn't be lived on or used for 15 years post event.
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The revolt of 1070-71?
East Anglia- King Swegn of Denmark came to East Anglia, joined by Hereward 'the wake' and Edwin and Morcar. Together they looted Peterborough Abbey. William payed off the Danes who left leaving the English Earls to fend for themselves...
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The revolt of 1070-71?... continued...
Morcar surrenedered, Edwin fled north and was murdered by his followers, Hereward disappeared.
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Revolt of 1072?
Scotland- Devastation of the North created a power vacuum in which Malcolm of Scotland rode devastating Cleveland and Durham. William showed his power by getting his army together and marching to Malcolm, Malcolm recognised William as king ...
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Revolt of 1072?... continued...
and to show good faith Malcolm expelled Edgar from his court.
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Revolt of 1075?
The Revolt of the Norman Earls- Norman lords, including the son of his most trusted earl. Led by Ralph de gael, The plot seemed to have been hatched at the feast for the wedding of Ralph in Norfolk. Lanfranc Archbishop of Canterbury acting as ....
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Revolt of 1075? continued...2
regent as William was away in Normandy, Lanfranc urged him to stay in the duchy. Earl Roger who was part of the rebellion was bottled up in Herefordshire by Norman troops, Ralph was forced to retreat to Norwich and then fled to Brittany, a Danish...
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Revolt of 1075? continued...3
fleet arrived but it was too late and so they looted and pillaged the east coast before going home. William returned to England at Christmas 1075 , the Bretons were blinded and murdered, Roger was banished from Herefordshire and imprisoned.
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Where were the Anglo- Norman Earldoms and who owned them?
Wessex, Mercia, East Anglia and Northumbria were divided up and given to different earls very soon after William's coronation. Odo= Kent, William FitzOsbern= Hereford and Lord of the Isle of Wight.
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Why were the castles so important?
Consolidated William's hold on England. England had never seen castles before only fortresses built by the Romans. The only castles seen before William were Motte and Bailey. They formed a part of the fabric of Anglo- Norman society- Geopolitical.
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What were Motte and Bailey castles?
Small wooden stockades. The Motte was a timber tower which was placed ontop of a large earth mound, the Bailey was was the outer compound adjacent to the Motte with a timber fence. The Bailey accommodated stables, a chapel, a forge, and living space.
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What were the castles there to do?
Secure the realm, William and FitzOsbern built small stone keeps to keep them safe, but the Motte and Bailey castles were built in towns and in geopolitical areas to keep an eye out for invading troops and to keep the locals at bay, no rebellions.
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How did Anglo-Norman kingship function?
The king was the chief lawmaker. He was the supreme military commander and the maker of foreign and domestic policy. occupied a priest-like status as the spiritual leader of his people. Made no great changes to what Edward had done so this was cont
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What did the king have to be?
Physically and mentally strong.Able to travel as kingship was itinerant.
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What was the coronation service?
Coronation of Harold, William I and William II were the same- continuity- religious service witnessed by hundreds who would shout approval of the king and after there was a great feast.
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What quote is used to describe William?
' king of the English by grant of God'
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When did William reign?
1066-1087(death)
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What is a writ?
Short sealed document with a standard greeting, which communicated commands and grants from the king's household to the provinces of England.
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What is a shire and is it continuity or change?
A division of land that nobility owned. This was kept the same from before William and so it is continuity.
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Where were the first shire-towns?
Shrewsbury and Chester.
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Did the power of the sheriff increase post 1066?
At the start of his reign William continued to employ existing sheriffs but after 1070 he replaced the sheriffs with men from the duchy of Normandy. The power of the Sheriffs grew from 1066-1100 and challenged that of the Earls.
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What were Shire courts?
Meetings with the sheriff and freemen of the shire, attended by bishops and earls- public events. Legal cases were heard and discussed alongside other things such as taxation and family disputes.-continuity.
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What were Hundred courts?
Technically under the jurisdiction of the sheriff but in reality presided over by his deputies. This court met more frequently than the shire courts and was the lowest public court in the land. Local land disputes and touched on law and order.
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What was the Danegeld?
A general tax to pay or fight off the Danish invaders in the late 19th century. The king and his advisers decided on the size of the geld and apportioned it to the different shires within the shires it was divided among the hundreds.
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How much was the Danegeld normally?
2 shillings per hide of land.
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How much has it been estimated the Royal income to be?
£20,000
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When was the Domesday book written?
1086.
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Why were people worried about the Domesday book?
Day of judgement, unsure of what William wanted to do with the information within it.
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what reasons are given by historians for the writing of the Domesday book?
Law and property, Military and Financial.
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What was the oath of sailsbury?
refers to an event in August 1086 when William I of England summoned his tenants-in-chief and "landowning men of any account" to Salisbury,[1] where they swore allegiance to him and to be faithful against all other men.
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How did William die?
His horse threw him against the pommel of the saddle and ruptured his spleen. 6 weeks later he was dead.
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William and his son wanted to ___________ Anglo saxon laws because William was the _______________ to the English throne.
Preserve. Rightful heir.
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Why the word feudalism?
taken from the latin word feudo or fief, the plot of land granted to a man for services.
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What is feudalism?
Heirachy with the king at the top all the way down to peasants at the very bottom.
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Who owned England?
William- As soon as he had conquered England he set the rule that 'All land belongs to the king'.Land was held by owners of shires not owned.
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Who were the tennants- in-chief?
Norman nobility who formed the aristocratic elite of the new society.
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How did William gain knights?
Each tennant-in-chief had to provide a certain number of fighting men or knights as they are known today. William needed men to help hold England as force is the only way he is able to hold it due to rebellions ect.
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The two types of knight?
Common knights and Noble knights.
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What did the knights do?
Jobs varied from simple escort duty to garrison duty.
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What were the similarities between the Norman Knights and Saxon Thegns?
Both did military service, both formed the landholding class in England.
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What were the differences between the Norman Knights and Saxon Thegns?
The Knights land was linked to the king, the estates of the knights were hereditary, Landless knights had positions in noble households,Knights service was more specifically military around the castles, service of a Thegn was not always military.
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What is a Bishopric?
Area of authority of a Bishop.
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What is a Monastery?
Term given to the residential communities of monks and nuns.
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How much power did the English church have?
Owned a lot of land with nunneries, monasteries and bishoprics. William worked closely with the church due to the amount of power it controlled. This land could not be sold or given away it belonged to the church forever.
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What word describes what William believed the English church was?
corrupt.
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What were the 4 clerical things that weren't allowed in the church but happened anyway?
Simony, Nepotism, Pluralism and Clerical Marriage.
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What is Simony?
The selling of church posts.
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What is Nepotism?
The securing of posts for relatives or friends.
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What is Pluralism?
The holding of more than one office at a time.
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What is Clerical marriage?
Priests were supposed to remain celibate but many had wives or mistresses.
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Where were the reformation ideas coming from/ based on?
The Abbey of Cluny and Pope Leo IX.
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How corrupt was the English church before 1066?
Archbishop Stigand and other bishops abused clerical privileges by having more than one post in the church ect. Edward had had a very good relationship with the papacay.
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Who/ what impacted from the conquest?
The bishops, The dioceses, Acrhdeacons, New cathedrals, Monastic cathedrals, Prishes and priests.
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What were the achievements of archbishop Lanfranc?
Archbishop of Canterbury, Famous Lawyer and Teacher, Monk, Acted as regent when William was away.
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Who was the primate?
The chief minister of the church.
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When was Stigand deposed?
1070.
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What laws did the church councils come up with?
Banning of clergy marriages, compulsory celibacy for priests, Moving of cathedrals to cities.
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What is a synod?
Eposcopal courts that ran alongside the shire courts.
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What were William's relations with the Papacy?
Took papal banner into Hastings with him in 1066 but things have draw apart since then as William wanted to remain separate form the pope.
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What does the term piety mean?
Religious devotion.
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Pope Gregory VII and William's relationship?
Pope wanted men to have loyalty to Rome where as William wanted them loyal to him.1080- William refused to swear fealty to Pope Gregory. The one thing they agreed on was that William would pay 'Peter's Pence' - Ancient tax payable by Monarch to Rome.
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What two words describe the conquest on the monasteries?
Devastation and reform.
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What happened to the Anglo-Saxon abbots?
Most were replaced with loyal Norman abbots.
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Augustinians...
Augustinian cannons- set a stricter standard of life, est 1090's at St Botolph, St Mary and St Gregory.
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Cistercians...
More powerful impact on English monasticism. est 1098, first abbey built for them was Waverley in Surrey. Their abbeys grew and became great agricultural and economic enterprises.
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Gilbertines...
Single English order. Est 1131. For pious women.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who were the three contenders for the throne?

Back

William Duke of Normandy (The kings cousin), Harold Godwinsson (The kings brother in law), Harald Hardrada (King of Norway and Earl of Wessex).

Card 3

Front

What does the title Earl mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a Hide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

There was a fourth contender for the English throne who was he?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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