History - war

Who did people think would stop another war from happening?
League of Nations.
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What did people think would deter war?
The terms in the Treaty of Versailles.
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What year did Hitler publish "Mein Kampf"?
1924.
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What did Hitler want? (3 things).
Unite all German-speaking people under his rule, gain living space for the Germans and restore Germany's power.
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What would Hitler have to do to achieve this?
Tear up T of V.
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What were one of the terms of the T of V in relation to the German army?
Germany could have no more than 100,000 soldiers.
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Who received German land as a result of the T of V?
France, Poland and Czechoslovakia.
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Which area of Germany was demilitarised?
The Rhineland - leaving Germany unable to protect its border with France.
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By what year were Germany's reparation payments cancelled?
1933.
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What was appeasement?
Giving into demands to keep the peace.
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When was Neville Chamberlain PM?
1937 - 1940.
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What did some people think of appeasement?
It made Britain look weak.
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Why was appeasement good? (3 things).
It could avoid war by use of negotiation, appeasement seemed a better option than relying on the L of N, communism in the USSR was regarded by some as more threatening than Hitler.
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By March 1939, which countries owned Czechoslovakia land?
Poland, Hungary and Germany.
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What was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
In August 1939, Germany and the USSR signed the pact and it stated that they would not interfere against the other power in the event of a war.
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What caused WW2?
German troops entering Poland on the 1st of September 1939 to clam the areas agreed in the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Britain had a guarantee agreement to defend Poland and Hitler refused to withdraw his troops.
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What was the 'phoney war'?
The period of time between Britain declaring war on Germany and late spring of 1940 when there was no military action.
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By the time Britain had declared war, what was in place? (4 things).
A plan for war that could last 3 years, a programme to build new warships for the navy, a Ministry of Supply to oversee war preparations, everyone had to carry gasmasks.
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How many people were in the Air Raid Precautions (ARP) by September 1939?
1.5 million.
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How many air raid wardens were women? (fraction).
1 in 6.
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Where did an air warden work from?
Home, office or shop.
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What did air wardens have to do? (5 things).
Register all people in their sector, enforce 'blackout', sound sirens during an air attack, help people to communal areas, carry out first aid.
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What did air wardens wear?
Steel helmet, wellington boots and an armband.
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What were anderson shelters?
People encouraged to dig holes in their gardens to put shelter in and cover with earth, protected people from falling brickwork, large concrete shelters with curved roofs, unpopular 'cuz they meant sleeping outside.
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What were morrison shelters?
Given out in 1941. Steel cages which fitted under a dining table with enough room for 2 adults & 2 small children.
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Why did people prefer the underground stations as shelters?
They could socialise.
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What percentage of Londoners stayed in their own rooms/houses during the Blitz?
60%.
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What were radar stations used for?
Tracking German planes.
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What were sector stations?
They acted as a nerve centre collecting the info from radar and sending the fighter planes to intercept the German planes.
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What were barrage balloons?
Large balloons filled with gas that were lighter than air and were attached to a steel cable.
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What was the purpose of barrage balloons?
Force enemy aircraft to fly at higher altitudes and make bombing less accurate.
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How many barrage balloons flew over strategic sites by August 1940?
2,368.
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What gun had been developed in the 1930s?
The Bofors 40-mm anti-aircraft gun. They could fire 120 rounds per minute and fire a round to a height of two miles above the ground.
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When was conscription introduced?
April 1939.
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What act made it compulsory for single men aged between 20 and 22 to join the armed forces?
The Military Training Act.
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What act was introduced in September 1939 and what did it do?
The National Services (Armed Forces) Act made it compulsory for men aged between 18 and 41 to join the armed forces.
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Why could men be exempted from the act?
If they had skills that could be better used at home.
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What was created and published by the Ministry of Labour in 1938?
A 'Schedule of Reserved Occupations'.
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Who was considered to have a reserved occupation?
Schoolteachers, doctors, railway and dock workers, farmers, workers in engineering industries, wardens in the ARP.
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How many men stayed at home in reserved occupations?
5 million.
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What did people think of workers in reserved occupations?
They were hiding instead of taking part in the actual fighting.
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When did Hitler decide to start bombing Britain?
September 1940.
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What weapons were Britain attacked by in 1944 to 1945?
The V-1 and V-2 Bombs.
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What were Hitler's aims with bombing Britain?
Force Britain to surrender, break British morale and destroy industry, shipyards & railways that would support Britain's war effort.
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Between which dates was London bombed every night?
2nd September to 2nd November 1940.
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When was the worst raid on London?
10th May 1941.
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When did Coventry suffer its worst attack and what were its effects?
14th November 1940, over 30,000 incendiary bombs dropped on the aircraft factories, Coventry Cathedral destroyed, people fled to countryside at night.
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When did Belfast suffer its worst attack and what were its effects?
April & May 1940, devastated by 4 German bombing raids, over 1,000 killed, 1,500 injured, 150,000 made homeless, around 4,000 women & children evacuated but left 80,000 in their homes.
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When did Glasgow suffer its worst attack and what were its effects?
13th & 14th March 1941, Germans bombed shipbuilding area of Glasgow, around 528 died, hundreds more injured, 4,000 homes destroyed, 35,000 made homeless.
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Why was Swansea a target?
It had a port, docks and it was vital in the import and export of coal.
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When did Swansea emergency services receive anti-gas training?
1937.
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What did Swansea receive in 1938 as preparation for the bombings?
ARP department, volunteer wardens, a team of ambulance drivers & firemen, specially designated mortuaries and key first aid posts deployed around the town.
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How many communal air raid shelters were built?
500.
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How many anderston shelters were distributed in March 1939?
6,549.
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What happened to the residents of the Danygraig area and what was the time & date that it happened?
3:30am, 27th June 1940 = residents were awakened by the sound of high explosives being dropped from aircraft that belonged to the German Luftwaffe. There were few casualties.
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How long was it before the Luftwaffe returned?
8 months.
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What are the dates of 'The Three Nights Blitz'? What happened?
19th, 20th & 21st February 1941 - caused death, injury and destruction of buildings of all types and uses.
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How many bombs were dropped over the three nights? (2 amounts).
1,273 highly explosive bombs and 56,000 incendiary bombs.
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How many people died, how many were injured and how many homes were destroyed?
230 deaths, 397 injured, 7,000 homes destroyed.
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How many times was Swansea bombarded between 1940 and 1943 and how many people died?
44 times, 340 deaths.
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When did evacuation begin?
1st September 1939.
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How many people were evacuated between 1939 and 1940?
1.5 million.
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Who went along with the children?
Their teachers so they could teach them in the countryside.
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Where did the evacuees gather when they arrived and what happened?
Village/school halls where they were chosen by the foster family.
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Why had children drifted back to the cities by Christmas 1939?
Because of the 'Phoney war' which was from Sep. 1939 to May 1940.
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When did a second evacuation from the cities take place?
When German bombers began blitzing London in 1940.
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When and why was there a further evacuation?
1944 when the Germans used their V-1 flying bombs and V-2 missiles to bomb Britain.
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Why was Wales designated as one of the reception areas for evacuees?
It was considered safe from German bombing as it was more rural than England and had fewer targets.
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Where was an attractive place in Wales that many families fled to?
The Gower Countryside.
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Why was this type of evacuation chaotic?
Because it was not planned by the authorities.
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Why was rationing needed?
Because Britain depended on food that was imported from abroad and ships coming to Britain were vulnerable to attack.
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How many tonnes of food did Britain import in 1938?
55 million tonnes - 3/4 of its total consumption.
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How many ships had the Germans sunk by Christmas 1939?
96.
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What also had to be rationed?
Fuel, furniture and clothes.
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What date was National Registration Day and what did every household have to do?
29th September 1939 - had to fill in a form giving details of the people who lived in the house.
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What did the government give everyone?
An identity card and a ration book.
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What did ration books contain and why?
Coupons that had to be handed to a shopkeeper so people could only buy the amount they were allowed.
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Who was the Minister of Food at the time?
Lord Woolton.
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What did Lord Woolton begin? What was its aim?
Propaganda campaigns to ensure that people did not waste food and grew as much of their own food as was possible.
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What were some of the propaganda campaigns for rationing? (4).
"Dig for Victory", "Grow your own Food", "Lend a Hand on the Land", "We want your kitchen waste".
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What forms of entertainment promoted recipes?
Radio programmes and magazines.
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What did the Utility Scheme do?
Ensured items such as shoes, clothes & carpets carried a utility mark (which indicated that they were necessary items needed during wartime) and were affordable.
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What effect did rationing have on the public?
It made them healthier and gave them all a balanced diet.
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What did the Vitamin Welfare Scheme do?
It gave young children milk and orange juice to improve their health.
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What effect did rationing have on pregnancy-related deaths?
It decreased them.
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What was created that was illegal?
A Black Market.
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What did the Black Market enable people to do?
People with money paid higher prices for extra rations.
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What was the government's response to the Black Market?
Passed laws that were quite severe to stop it.
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What could courts do to tackle the Black Market?
Impose fines of up to £500 and imprison the guilty for up to two years.
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How many inspectors did the Ministry of Food employ to try to root out the Black Market?
900.
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When was petrol first rationed?
March 1939.
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What was first rationed in 1940? (6).
Bacon, butter, sugar, meat, tea and margarine.
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What was first rationed in 1941? (5).
Jam, cheese, clothing, eggs and coal.
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What was first rationed in 1942? (9).
Rice, dried fruit, soap, tinned tomatoes, peas, gas, electricity, sweets and chocolate.
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What did women do at the start of war? With which organisation?
Register for voluntary work with organisations such as the Women's Voluntary Service (WVS).
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What did other women demand?
Part-time work in industry.
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What did the government tell women to do?
Stick to their existing jobs or stay at home.
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What happened in April 1941 to women?
All women were forced to register for work as the Ministry of Labour needed 2 million more workers for the armed forces and war industries.
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When was conscription for women aged 19 to 30 introduced?
December 1941.
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How many women aged between 14 and 64 were in war work by 1943?
17 million.
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What percentage were single women and what percentage were married women with children over 14?
90% single, 80% married.
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What does the WRNS stand for?
Women's Royal Naval Service.
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What does the WAAF stand for?
Women's Auxiliary Air Force.
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What does the ATS stand for?
Auxiliary Territorial Service.
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What was the most popular service?
The WRNS.
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How many women were in these services by 1944 and how many were in the ATS?
450,000 women, 212,000 in the ATS.
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What did women work as? (5)
Mechanics, welders, pilots, carpenters and even gunners on anti-aircraft guns.
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What else did women do? (2).
They overhauled and serviced torpedoes and depth charges & repaired ships.
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What other jobs did women do? (4).
Carried out administrative tasks, drove convoys, acted as dispatch riders and worked in intelligence (e.g. as codebreakers at Bletchley Park).
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What else did women do? (4)
They worked in civilian medical centres, first-aid posts, mobile canteens and rest centres.
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What did women in voluntary services also have?
A full time or part time job.
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How many women were in civil defence and the fire services by 1943?
CD = 180,000, FS = 47,000.
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How many women volunteered as messengers and dispatch riders for the Post Office?
130,000.
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What jobs did women do in the heavy industries?
Women worked in aircraft factories, munitions factories, as engineers, mechanics and lorry, train and bus drivers.
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What percentage of women occupied jobs in factories by 1943?
57%.
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What was the pay and the conditions like?
Very poor.
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How long did many women have to work in factories each day?
12 hours.
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Women's pay was usually ... of a man's pay.
75%.
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When was the Women's Land Army created and why?
June 1939 - to increase the amount of food grown in Britain.
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Where were most if the 'land girls' from?
The countryside.
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Where did 1/3 of 'land girls' come from?
London and Northern cities.
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How many members did the Women's Land Army have by 1944?
80,000.
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How many radio licence holders were there in Britain during the war?
9 million.
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Who had control over the BBC?
The Ministry of Information.
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Which BBC newsreaders were popular across Britain?
Richard Dimbleby and Frank Gillard.
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Why did the newsreaders give their names at the start of each broadcast?
So listeners would know their voice in case they were impersonated by the enemy.
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What was the name of a comedy programme on the radio? What was its purpose?
"It's That Man Again" - poked fun at Hitler and the Germans, also the British way of dealing with the war.
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What music programme was introduce to improve morale in industry?
"Music while you work".
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How many cinema tickets were sold in 1938? What about in 1945?
1938 = 980 million. 1945 = 1,500 million.
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What did the Ministry of Information produce? Name one.
Short films about coping with the problems created by the war: there were documentaries like "Fires were started" about firefighting in London.
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What were the films produced like? Name two.
They were patriotic and dealt with the realities of war but had a biased approach. "In which we serve" and "Went the day well?"
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What was one of the most famous films of the war? When was it made?
1943 - "Henry V" starring Laurence Olivier.
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What was set up within hours of the outbreak of war?
The Ministry of Information.
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How many people worked in the ministry by 1945?
More than 3,000.
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What was the aim of propaganda?
To encourage support for the war, convince people to think & act in a particular way, to appeal to people's sense of patriotism and to educate people about key issues during war.
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What did the government also want to make sure of?
That information would not be given away to the enemy or given to the British people that might damage morale.
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What did the government introduce and what did it involve?
Censorship: sensitive material was blacked out or returned to sender.
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What did the government censor?
Overseas mail & letters going abroad, telephone calls, soldiers' letters, items of news and photographs.
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Who faced the restriction of censored phone calls other than the public? (2)
Churchill and King George.
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Which Communist newspaper was banned in 1941 and why?
The Daily Worker; it supported Stalin and attacked the British government but rarely condemned Hitler.
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What did the Ministry publish? (4)
Pamphlets, books, short information films and newsreels.
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What campaign involved carrots?
'Doctor Carrot'.
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What did the 'doctor' encourage?
People to maker curried carrot, carrot jam and a drink called Carrolade (made from the juices of carrot and swede).
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What campaign involved the potato?
'Potato Pete'.
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What did the 'Dig for Victory' campaign involve?
Posters and leaflets to educate people about the efficient use of food.
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What were men and women across Britain encouraged to do?
Grow their own food to supplement what was available through rationing.
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What did people do to their lawns and open spaces?
Turned them into vegetable gardens and open spaces were turned into allotments.
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What animals did people start to keep to supplement their ration allowances?
Hens, rabbits and even pigs.
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How many allotments were there in Britain by 1939? How many by 1943?
Over 800,000. Doubled by 1943.
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What was the Spitfire Fund and when was it introduced?
In 1940, the government scheme by Lord Beaverbrook spread across Britain. If an individual or business raised £5,000, they could have a spitfire fighter aircraft named after them.
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What did the £5000 cover?
The cost of building the frame.
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Where was your name painted and in what colour?
In yellow on the fuselage.
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What did local communities stage and what was its aim?
'Spitfire' events so people could contribute anything they could afford.
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What event in Brighton raised £400?
A special 'spitfire' dog race.
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Who was Nazim of Hyderabad and what did he do?
An Indian prince who donated so much money that 152 (Hyderabad) Spitfire squadron were named in his honour.
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Who donated £100,000?
The MP for Macclesfield, Garfield Weston.
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How much money did the Gold Coast in Australia raise?
£25,000 which paid for 5 spitfires.
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When did Neville Chamberlain resign?
10th May 1940. Just as Hitler launched his Blitzkrieg on Holland and Belgium.
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What two issues did Britain then face?
War had erupted in the West and its PM had resigned.
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Who was Winston Churchill?
A senior figure in Parliament - he hated Hitler and Nazism and had spoken out against Germany in the 1930s.
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When was Churchill appointed PM?
10th May 1940.
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Why was Churchill appointed PM? (5).
He had been against appeasement and had been proven right, opinion polls suggested that the public liked & supported him, his speeches were admired and he was popular with the press, he was clear in his opinion.
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Where was the German army & air forcer and the British Expeditionary Force when he was appointed?
Germans = northern France, Britain were trapped at Dunkirk.
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How many British soldiers were evacuated from Dunkirk?
300,000.
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What did Churchill have the self-confidence to do?
Convince his coalition cabinet and the population that Britain could stand up to Hitler.
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What did Churchill do instead of trying to negotiate? (3).
He organised a military, ensured that the air force could control the skies and cultivated close relations with the USA which meant that Britain received support to fight the war.
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How did Churchill keep up morale?
With speeches and tours of Britain.
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What did people say about his speeches?
They were so powerful and he 'mobilised the English language' as part of the war effort.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did people think would deter war?

Back

The terms in the Treaty of Versailles.

Card 3

Front

What year did Hitler publish "Mein Kampf"?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Hitler want? (3 things).

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What would Hitler have to do to achieve this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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