History Unit 2 USSR Stalin 1924-1953 Government

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Stalin as leader DATE
(1924) 1928-1953
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Stalin as General Secretary
Co-ordinating work (war, finances...), access to important files, Secret police reported back to him, gaines loyalty (50'000 members recruited, badly educated), promoted suppoweters
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Who did Stalin promote
Molotov, Kalinin, Voroshilow, Kirov
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Stalin dealing with his opponents DATE
1924-1928
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Left wing opponents
Trotsky (leader of red army) , Zinoviev, Kamenev (both had a strong power base as party secretaries) Zinoviev in Leningrad and Kamenev in Moscow
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Right wing opponents
Bukharin (Young, "golden boy") , Tomsky (Trade Union representative), Rykov (succeeded Lenin as chair of the sovnarkom)
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What did the people on the left want?
permanent revolution, encouraged communism around the world, breaking with NEP
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Wat did the people on the right want?
Stick to NEP, some private and public ownership
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Left wing purge DATE
1926, accused of forming factions, expelled form Politburo and the Party, Zinoviev and Kamenev readmitted after renouncing their previous views, Trotsky exiled
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'Right Oppisiton' group emerged DATE
1928, after 1st 5 Year Plan announced right was concerned that removal of NEP --> Food reduction,
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Stalin methods in dealing with the right
Foundatrion of Leninism (Easy to read, for naive politicians), undermining Bukharin (accusations of forming factions, secret meetings with left, Trotsky sayings), critising NEP,
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Right wing purge
1929, Bukharin forced to admit error, removed from posts, collective leadership removed (declared by Lenin 1924), removed their power and positions
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Key instrument of terror
Party Secretariat (collected info on party members), NKVD 1934, arrests torture and executions, Gulags, dominated whole police force
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Chistka DATE (non violent purge)
1932-35, non violent process, purging because party had difficulties launching first 5 Year Plan and collectivisation, slow speed of policies carried out (22% members removed who slowed process down), Kamenev Zinoviev, Bukharin, Tomsky, Rykov
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Great Purge When?
1930's, wave of terror, targeted people with fake accusations, people sent to Gulags
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What was Stalin criticised for?
Personal Dictatorship, Brutality of collectivisation, unrealistic targets, 17th party congress (Kirov spoke out against Stalin)
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Murder of Kirov DATE
2st Dec. 1934, assassination by Nikolayev, Stalins oders?, blamed Kamenev and Zinoviev (arrested and imprisoned)
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The show trials
seemed fair but were tortured to admit non existing crimes before, filmed to use for propaganda and intimdation
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The Trial of the 16 DATE
1935, Kamenev and Zinoviev, accused for Trotsky loyalties, undermining state, death penalty
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The Trial of the 17 DATE
1937, Left wing, accused for working with Trotsky, links to foreign govnt, opposing economy, death penalty
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The Trial of the 21 DATE
1938, Right wing, Tomsky (suicide), Bukharin und Rykov, Working with Trotsky, death penalty
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Purge of the Red Army DATE
1937-38, 3/5 marshals, 14/16 army commanders, 35'000 officers (shot or imprisoned), not doing a good job on collectivisation
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Purge of the Secret Police DATE
1936, Yagoda replaced by Yezhov (responsible for 3000 purged within NKVD in 6 months), Yezhov dismissed in 1938
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The Soviet Constitution
1936, because of war needed allies on his side so made his country seem like a democracy but in reality was still a dictatorship
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Soviet Constitution was democratic
Every citizen got a vote, bourgeois, Kulaks and Priests granted the vote, freedom of press and organisation, guarantee of emplyment
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Soviet Constitution dictatorship
restrictions, dominance of party, party allowed to stand in elections
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Stalin's power WW2 DATE
1941-1945, GKO state defence committee, effective organisation, terror reduced (needed men), some people released from Gulags, propaganda that appealed to nationalists, symbol of unity
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High Stalinism DATE
1945-1953, terror reinforced, Mingrelian Affair, Doctors Plot
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Mingrelian Affair DATE
1951, purge of party in Georgia (people of mingrelian ethnicity), removed Berias allies, Beria was mingrelian
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Doctors Plot DATE
Group of doctors arrested, Anti USSR Semitism?, first step to eliminate Beria?, Stalin died before it could take palce
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Card 2

Front

Co-ordinating work (war, finances...), access to important files, Secret police reported back to him, gaines loyalty (50'000 members recruited, badly educated), promoted suppoweters

Back

Stalin as General Secretary

Card 3

Front

Molotov, Kalinin, Voroshilow, Kirov

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1924-1928

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Trotsky (leader of red army) , Zinoviev, Kamenev (both had a strong power base as party secretaries) Zinoviev in Leningrad and Kamenev in Moscow

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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