History Unit 2 USSR Gorbachev 1985-1991 Government

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Glasnost
policy of openess, aim to re-engage the population with the parties politics and enlighten them with past mistakes, encouragement for population to put forward new ideas
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Criticisms under Glasnost (5)
Poor housing, Stalins mass terror (famine of 1930's, Katyn Massacre), loss of lives during WW2, Arel sea used to test nuclear weapons, Chernobyl nuclear blast
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Chernobyl DATE
1986 Delayed admissions of accident, population informed too late, many lives lost due to radioactivity exposal, badly managed, outdated technology to tackle the problem
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Results of Glasnost
60'000 groups called for reform, criticism against the party, peope resigned from the party
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Gorbachevs attempt of reforms (4)
Defining functions of State and Party, Shift power from Party to Soviets, Streamlinig the Party, Clampdown on corruption
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Defining functions of Party and State DATE
June 1988, seperate party and state at 19th party conference, lines became blurred as no clear difference was seen, promotions were based on loyalty
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Shift of power from Party to Soviets
more finance to soviets, deputies to be elected for 5 years
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Sreamlining the Party
Central Committee membership reduced from 20-9 people, superministries combined to look after one thing
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Clampdown on corruption
Attacks on corrupt party officials, Kunayev remove din 1986 and Kolbin pu tin his place as first secretary of Party, riot was caused where 100's were killed
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Democratisation move 1 DATE
Early 1987, secret ballots for multiple candidates
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Democratisation move 2 DATE
June 1987, multiple candidates in elections for local soviets, candidates put forward by people
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Democratisation move 3 DATE
June 1988 (19th Party Conference), multi-candidate elections extended to national level, new congress of Peoples Deputies
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Congress of Peoples Deputies
independant, supervisory role over government, seperate functions of party from state, members to be allocated to party or trade unions ect....
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Democratisation move 4 DATE
March 1989, new Congress of Peoples Deputies, gave people taste of democracy, significant change
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Pluralism
Reformers convinced it was a multi party system due to the reforms failure as it did not strengthen the economy or engage the population more as intended
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Reforms impact on Unity (5)
Iincreasing divisions in party, alienating reformers, alienating conservatives, development of factions, abolition of article 6
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Increasing divisions within the party
Liberals vs. conservatives (both against Gorbachev)
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Alienating reformers DATE
1987-88, Yeltsin, criticized that needing reforms were not provided, Yeltsin sacked after attacking Gorbachev's reforms slow pace openely
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Alienating conservatives DATE
1988, to gain control over events, want old communism back, undermining work of Stalin (aritcle)
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Development of factions
Yeltsin - Inter Regional group Conervatives - Soyuz --> arguments between liberals and conservatives withing Politburo and Central Committee, unofficia opposition to government
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Abolition of Article 6 (Communist party held only position of leading and guiding force of siviet society)
Article supplied 'one party' state, critics wanted real democracy conservatives did not, Gorbachev replaced it, ending party's monopoly on power, other parties could join to contest elections
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Why was Communism powerless by 1990 ?
Elections to local soviets defeated Communists across country, Leningrad opposition secured 60% of seats, support for national groups, Yeltsin emerged by scoring victory in election for Russian Congress of People's Deputies, Yeltsin resigns in June
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Gorbachevs attempt to gain back control
made himself president, president rule replaces party's rule in theory
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Why did Gorbachevs reforms fail?
Communism impossible to reform, can't have anything else but a totalitarian state, conservatives and reformers were a challange
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Poor housing, Stalins mass terror (famine of 1930's, Katyn Massacre), loss of lives during WW2, Arel sea used to test nuclear weapons, Chernobyl nuclear blast

Back

Criticisms under Glasnost (5)

Card 3

Front

1986 Delayed admissions of accident, population informed too late, many lives lost due to radioactivity exposal, badly managed, outdated technology to tackle the problem

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

60'000 groups called for reform, criticism against the party, peope resigned from the party

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Defining functions of State and Party, Shift power from Party to Soviets, Streamlinig the Party, Clampdown on corruption

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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