History- Topic 4

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Nazi's aims for young people
Wanted them to hold nazi values and to be united regardless of class. He needed their support for the third Reich to last 100 years. Nazis intended to prepare boys for war and girls for motherhood.
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Education changes under the Nazis
All schools became single sex. 15% of the timetable was dedicated to PE. Textbooks were changed to favour the Nazis. Biology showed the larger Aryan skulls. Exam questions enforced Nazi views. Girls had to study domestic science and Eugenics.
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Jews at school
Jews were embarrassed by teachers. 97% of teachers joined the Nazi teacher's associated. Jewish teachers were banned from 1936 and all Jews were expelled from November 1936
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Special schools
Napolas were set up to educated future army and government chiefs. Adolf-Hitler schools were set up to educate potential future political leaders. These schools had military focuses.
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Youth Groups- Boys
In 1933 only 30% attended but by 1939 82% of children attended. Hitler Youth from for boys aged 14-18, little fellows was for boys aged 6+ and German young people was for boys aged 10-13.
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Youth Groups- girls
Girls joined the league of german girls at 10. They then joined the league of german maidens at 14. They did this until age 24. At 24 they had to spend a year doing domestic or farm service.
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Opposition- youth groups
The Edelweiss Pirates opposed the Nazis. They listened to modern swing music and grew their hair long. In 1939 they had 2000 members
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Women in Nazi Germany
in 1933 there were 100,000 female teachers. 3000 female doctors and 20 reichstag members. Nazis didn't want women to work instead they wanted them to stay at home and raise the next generation of Nazis.
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Raising the birth rate
The Law for the encouragement of marriage in 1933 gave loans of 1000 to couples if the mother left work. If the couple had 4 children they could keep the loan. Mothers were given crosses for having children. Bronze for 4-5. silver 6-7, gold 8+
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Women could get impregnated by ** soldiers. Also divorces were made legal if one member of the couple was infertile ( 1938)
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Getting women back into work
The Law for encouragement of marriage was abolished in 1937 as many men were in the army so there was a shortage of workers.
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Reducing unemployment- The labour service
The DAF was introduced in 1933. It protected workers right, increased pay and regulated working hours. The RAD provided work for the unemployed. It was voluntary but became compulsory for young men in 1935. By 1939 Germany had 7000 miles of motorways
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Treatment of workers in the RAD
Workers had to wear uniform, live in camps and complete military drills. The nazis hoped this would indoctrinate young men with nazi views
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Schacht was in control of the economy from 1933-37. He increased government investment in industry, made trade agreements and limited the number of imports. Hitler asked him to make Germany ready for war in 4 years but he said that was impossible
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The Four Year Plan 1937
Goering introduced this. Production of iron and steel trebled. Restrictions on foreign imports tightened and Germany became more self-sufficient( autarky). The government spent 26 billion marks on arms in 1939. Production of plastic increased by 460%
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Invisible unemployment
Women and Jews were forced out of jobs and not counted in unemployment figures. Official figures say unemployment fell from 4.8 million in 1933 to 1.6 million in 1936 and 0.5 mill in 1938. However 100,000 women lost their jobs
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Rising standard of living
Unemployment decreased from 1.6 mill in 1933 to 0.5 mill in 1938. The DAF stopped workers being exploited. Wages increased and in 1938 were 20% higher than in 1933. Sales increased to 45% in 1938
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Strength through Joy
Set up in 1933. It provided new sports facilities, films, outings and holidays. For example in 1938 over 2.5 mill went to concerts, 6.5 to operas and over 8 mill on holidays
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Beauty of Labour- 1934
This aimed to ensure high standards at work and improved working conditions in factories. It tried to ensure that there was good ventilation, safety, cleanliness, lighting and acceptable noise levels
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Falling standard of living
DAF caused hours to increase to 72 hours a week in 1939 for some. Unemployment figures were not true as many were in the army or prison. Real wages didn't increase as food prices rose by 20% between 1933-39. The working class ate fewer veg in 1937
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In 1938 there was a -0.1 balance of trade compared to 0.7 which it was in 1933
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Nazi beliefs about race
Nazis believed that there were Untermenschen ( sub-humans) who were jews, gypsies and Africans.
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Indirect persecution of the Jews
April 1933- government ordered boycott of Jewish businesses. Jews were banned from gov jobs. 1934- Jews panned from public places and had to be home by 8pm. 1935- Jews banned from army and restaurants. Propaganda portrayed jews as greedy.
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The Nuremberg Laws
September 1935- Only those with german blood could be citizens. The reich law forbade jews from marrying germans. Those who did not identify as jewish but had more than 3 jewish grandparents were seen as Jewish
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Laws from 1938
1938- Jews had to register all possessions. 1938- Jews had to carry identity cards.
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Kristallnacht November 1938
After a jew shot a german in Paris anger swept Germany. Gangs smashed jewish businesses and homes. 100 jews were killed and 171 homes were destroyed. Goebbels blamed the jews and fined them 1 billion marks. The SA and ** sent over 20,000 jews to camp
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1939 onwards
1939- all jews had to change their names- Israel for boys and Sarah for girls. 1939- they could be evicted from homes.
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Persecution of disabled and mentally ill
Nazis said disabled babies should die. In 1933 the sterilisation law was passed. Between 1934-1945 around 700,000 germans were sterilised. In 1939 the euthanasia campaign began and by 1945 6000 disabled died.
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Card 2


Education changes under the Nazis


All schools became single sex. 15% of the timetable was dedicated to PE. Textbooks were changed to favour the Nazis. Biology showed the larger Aryan skulls. Exam questions enforced Nazi views. Girls had to study domestic science and Eugenics.

Card 3


Jews at school


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Card 4


Special schools


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Card 5


Youth Groups- Boys


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