History - Surgery (1845-1918)

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What was a key problem with Medieval surgery?
It was often left to low paid and untrained assistants and barber-surgeons
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What were two common tasks of a barber-surgeon?
Bloodletting and extracting teeth
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Why do any say that surgery progressed during the Middle Ages?
There was a lot of war and conflict so a surgeons 'expertise' was in high demand
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What's so special about Hugh and Theoderic of Luccca?
They discovered the antiseptic properties of wine in the early 13th Century, and idea that didn't catch on
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What's so special abut Guy de Chauliac?
He wrote a book that became the most important book on surgery
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When did Guy de Chauliac write his famous book?
1363
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What's so special about John of Arderne?
He developed an early anesthetic; it contained hemlock, opium and henbane. However, if it was not carefully controlled then the patients would die
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What's so special about Ambriose Pare?
Changed surgery in the long term but not while his ideas didn't make much difference while he was alive
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How did Pare start his surgery career?
As a barber-surgeon. This gave him time to develop his ideas
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What's another notable job that Pare had?
He was an army surgeon
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What method did Pare come up with?
Ligatures which used catgut or silk to tie arteries during amputations
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When did Pare discover that egg yolk and rose oil worked better that cautery oil when cauterising?
In 1536
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What was a flaw with Pare's ligatures?
They were more likely to become septic as reliable antiseptics had not yet been developed
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What did Medieval surgeons use as antiseptics?
Wine
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What did Medieval surgeons use as anaestheitics?
Natural substances like opium, mandrake and gall of boar
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How deep into the body could Medieval surgeons operate?
Not very - only some internal surgery could be undertaken such as removing bladder stones
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What about wounds in the Middle Ages caused death?
Infection, shock and blood loss
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What held many back from actually saving lives during the Middle Ages?
They didn't know what caused disease. Also, the still trepanned
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Why were many suspicious of new surgery techniques during 1800s?
Because many of them were untested and practiced on only religious grounds
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What was so special about Robert Liston?
He was a very fast surgeon who was famous in London but managed to accidentally cut off someone's testicles and managed to kill 3 people in one go
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Why was it important that surgeons work fast during the 1800s?
Because there were no anaestheitcs
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What was a common risk of surgery in the 1800s?
Infection and blood poisoning (which eventually lead to death)
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What was a barber-surgeon and who were the popular among?
They were people that cut hair, removed abscesses and bled patients. They were popular among the poor
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What was so special about Humphry Davy?
He found that Nitrous Oxide (laughing gas) could be used as an anaesthetic - no one listened to him though...
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Why was laughing gas ignored as an anesthetic?
Because it was seen as a fairground novelty and during a public demonstration, a guy who agreed with Davy, called Horace Wells, managed to pick on of the few who was unaffected by the gas
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When and who discovered the anaesthetic qualities of ether?
Crawford Long, in 1842. Although, he didn't publish his work
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What did wars in the Renaissance and Industrial Revolution do?
Allowed surgeons to practice their stuff
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What did wars in the Renaissance and Industrial Revolution do concerning blood?
They highlighted the need for good blood storage and better transfusion methods
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What has Snow got to do with technology?
He created a chloroform inhaler to regulate a person's dose, avoiding death
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When was the first public demonstration of ether and who did it?
William Morton in1846
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Why was ether maybe not so good?
It was an irritant and quite explosive which was bad because everything was either candle or lamp-lit
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What was so special about James Simpson?
He discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform when experimenting on himself
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When was chloroform used? What sometimes happened?
It was mainly used to reduce pain during childbirth but it sometimes affected the heart, causing sudden death
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What did John Snow do?
He made a chloroform inhaler that regulated that regulated dosage and reduced the number of deaths
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Why were ether and chloroform important?What was a general downfall of them?
They meant that surgeons could take more time with their operations as their patients were not moving around and screaming. However, this meant that infection and excessive blood loss was more likely
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What factors influenced Simpson?
Invdividual genius and chance
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Why did some object to the use of anaesthetics?
Many were suspicious of anything new and some objected on religious grounds
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How is Queen Victoria linked to anaesthetics?
She used chloroform during childbirth in 1853
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What is an aseptic method?
A surgical method that aims to stop germs getting near a wound
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What is an antiseptic method?
A method that kills germs
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Was Semmelweis' work a turning point in surgery?
Maybe, if his ideas caught on. He told people to wash their hands, which they didn't because it was too much hassle
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What did Joseph Lister do?
He saw carbolic spray used in sewage works to reduce bad smells. Upon using it in an operating theater, he saw infection rates go down and linked this to Pasteur's Germ Theory
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When was germ theory published?
1865
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Why did many doctors and nurses oppose Lister's work?
Because it was difficult to use and caused dry skin. Also, some were convinced that it wasn't needed orthat it simply didn't work (because when they did use it, they didn't use it properly). CONTINUED IN NEXT CARD...
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Why did many doctors and nurses oppose Lister's work? CONT.
Some didn't accept germ theory, carbolic acid slowed down procedures and Lister often changed is methods (to improve) - it was thought that he was unsure
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Why was asepsis good?
Because it saved lives as there were fewer germs around but also meant that chemicals were needed less
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What's so special about Karl Landsteiner?
He discovered blood groups in 1900 - 1902 and recognised that compatibility was necessary for successful blood transfusion
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Why were blood transfusions still difficult after Landsteiner's discovery?
Because a donor still needed to be present which was impractical
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Card 2

Front

What were two common tasks of a barber-surgeon?

Back

Bloodletting and extracting teeth

Card 3

Front

Why do any say that surgery progressed during the Middle Ages?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What's so special about Hugh and Theoderic of Luccca?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What's so special abut Guy de Chauliac?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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