Italy 1896-1922

HideShow resource information
How many Prime Ministers had Italy had between 1870 and 1922?
29
1 of 117
What percentage of the population relied on agriculture for their income in 1870?
91% in the South
2 of 117
What is the name of the style of politics used by politicians during this period?
Trasformissmo
3 of 117
Why did Italy suffer an economic depression in the early 1890's?
Trade disputes with France
4 of 117
Which two politicians borrowed huge amounts in what became known as the Banca Romana scandal?
Giovanni Giolitti and Francessco Crispi
5 of 117
How many troops were sent to Sicily to quash the strikes, demonstrations and impose martial law in 1894?
40,000
6 of 117
What did the Liberal Reforms do for people in in Italy in 1881?
Primary Education was compulsory and more people could vote
7 of 117
How manyy seats in Parliament did the PSI win in 1900?
32 seats
8 of 117
Which decade did the pope allow Catholics to vote in election?
1890's
9 of 117
What word is used by Nationalists to sum up a desire to occupy land?
irredentism
10 of 117
Which primeminister lost his job as a result of the Treaty of Saint Germain?
Orlando
11 of 117
What was the name of the President who demanded that all nations in Europe should have self-determination?
Woodrow Wilson
12 of 117
What territories were given to Italy in 1919?
3/5, South Tyrol, Trentino, Istria
13 of 117
Which group was particularly upset by the failings of the Treaty of Saint Germain?
Nationalists
14 of 117
What did some people call the failings?
A Mutilated Victory
15 of 117
Which poet decided to take mattres into his own hands?
D'Annunzio
16 of 117
Which city did Nationalists lead an uprising against in 1919?
Fiume
17 of 117
How many troops went with D'Annunzio?
2000
18 of 117
How many years did the occupatiion of Fiume last for?
1 year and 2 months
19 of 117
What did the Invasion of Fiume show people in italy?
That the government was weak and would give in to pressure.
20 of 117
Which Treaty did Italy sign in 1915 that meant they would join the war on the side of the Triple Entente?
The Treaty of London
21 of 117
What did some people use to describe the war in the Alps?
A war of Attrition
22 of 117
What did socialists say about the war?
It was a Bosses war
23 of 117
At which battle did the Italian Army lose 300,000 men, either killed, wounded or taken prisoner?
Caporetto
24 of 117
Which Prime Minister resigned as a result of the defeat at the battle of Caporetto?
Boseli
25 of 117
Who replaced Boseli as Prime Minister?
Orlando
26 of 117
At which battle did the Italians beat the Austrians?
That Battle of Vittorio Veneto
27 of 117
At whichTreaty did Italy fail to gain the lands that it had been promised in 1915?
The Treaty of Saint Germain
28 of 117
Who replaced Orlando after he failed to make gains at the Treaty of Saint Germain?
Nitti
29 of 117
What did D'Annunzio call the failed peace negotiations?
A mutilated Victory
30 of 117
What was the total increase in debt between 1914 and 1918?
(From 16 to 85 billion Lire) 69 billion Lire
31 of 117
What did teh government do to try and pay off this debt?
Print Money
32 of 117
What problem did this cause?
Inflation
33 of 117
What percentage did the purchasing power of peoples wages fall by?
25%
34 of 117
What did the end of the war mean for large companies?
The end of the good times (end of lucrative contracts)
35 of 117
In 1918 how much more did the government spend on the war than it had collected?
40 Billion
36 of 117
What two things did workers resent at the end of the war?
Unemployment and longer working hours.
37 of 117
How many workwers took part in industrial strikes in 1919?
3,000
38 of 117
In 1918 trade union membership was 250,000. What was it by 1920?
2 million
39 of 117
By 1919 waht was the unemployment figure for Italy?
2 million
40 of 117
How many seats did the Socialists win in th 1919 election?
156
41 of 117
In September 1920, how many workers were on strike in Northern towns?
400,000
42 of 117
What policy used earlier in 1903 did Giolitti use to try and appease the workers and employers?
Neutrality
43 of 117
How many provinces did Socialists seize in the local elections in late 1920?
In control of 26 of the countries 69 provinces.
44 of 117
Name three goups which bitterly oppsed Socialists and strated to support Fascists at the end of 1920?
Landowners, Conservatives, and ex-servicemen
45 of 117
In November 1920, fascists carried out their first major attach during the inauguration of the Socialist council, in which city in the North?
Bologna
46 of 117
What was a favourite torture method of fascist squads?
Forcing people to drink litres of Castor oil
47 of 117
Between 1920-21, how many trade unions were destroyed, people killed and Socialists wounded?
80 trade union offices destroyed, 200 dead and 800 wounded.
48 of 117
What did the spread of fascist violence became known as?
Squadrismo
49 of 117
What was the name of the job centre run by the Socialist Labourers Union?
CGL
50 of 117
In what year did Crispi resign as a result of th eBattle of Adowa?
1896
51 of 117
Give two reasons why Liberal Italy was gripped by street demonstrations, rioting in Milan and 200 protesters were killed in 1898.
Poor harvest of 1897 combined with high taxes on imported wheat.
52 of 117
Following the crack down by the government, the "opposition" went underground, which politician advocated a new approach and more focus on the plight of working classes?
Giovanni Giolitti
53 of 117
What two social reforms were passed between 1901-03 to help build bridges between Liberal Government and workers?
Banned child labour (under age of 12) , and one rest day a week was compulsory.
54 of 117
Between 1900-07, what did the government do to improve public works and and poor peoples living standards? (5 examples)
Spending on infrastructure increased by 50%. Spent on: Improving roads, farming and the quality of drinking water in the South. Taxes on food were reduced and vaccination against malaria were released to areas affected.
55 of 117
What two new policies did Giolitti introduce to improve relations between government, employers and workers?
Neutrality in disputes and employed arbitrators.
56 of 117
Giolitti's policies won the support of what group in parliament which effectivley formed a coalittion with the Liberals?
Moderate Socialists
57 of 117
Having proposed to drop a law permitting divorce, Which group also joined Giolitti's coalition?
Catholics
58 of 117
Name one city in which Catholics formed part of governing coalition in the North of Italy?
Turin
59 of 117
What policy was a key characteristic of Giolittis time as Prime Minister seemed to be bringing 'all men of goodwill together"?
Trasformissmo.
60 of 117
What did Mussolini attempt to settle in November 1921?
The Squadrismo
61 of 117
What two decisions won the support of the Catholics in 1922?
Declaring fascism opposed to divorce and prepared to settle the Roman Question.
62 of 117
What did the Socialists launch in July 1922?
General Strike
63 of 117
How did the strike benefit fascists?
It was weak and poorly prepared, Mussolini could present his Fascists as the sole defenders of law and order.
64 of 117
What did the King fail to impose at 9am in October, 1922?
Martial law
65 of 117
On which date was Mussolini appointed Prime Minister?
29th October,
66 of 117
Why did teh March on Rome take place?
he could keep his more radical supporters happy and intimidate liberals into making concessions.
67 of 117
In which year was the Unification totally completed?
1870
68 of 117
Which two areas were most resistant to unification?
Papal States, Sicily
69 of 117
What were the three main industrial cities? (in the North)
Milan, Turin, Genoa
70 of 117
What are teh names of the states that Milan, Turin and Genoa are situated in?
Piedmont, Lombardi, Venetto
71 of 117
What happened to Italy's Northern Economy in the 1880's?
Industrialisation
72 of 117
What was the name of the main agricultural centre in the North?
Po
73 of 117
In 1913, what percentage of th eItalian population lived in rural arean?
57%
74 of 117
What percentage of children were illiterate in the north in 1861?
68%
75 of 117
What percentage of children were illiterate in the South in 1861??
87%
76 of 117
What is Mezzagiorno another word for?
The South
77 of 117
What was the percentage for primary school attendance in the North?
80%
78 of 117
What was the percentage for primary school attendance in the South?
18%
79 of 117
Who were the latifundia?
Large inefficient Nobel States
80 of 117
Who were the agrari?
Landowners
81 of 117
What percentage of people owned 50% of land in the South?
0.01%
82 of 117
Who were Sharecroppers?
Farmers
83 of 117
What was the name given to peasant tenant farmers?
Mezzandri
84 of 117
Name three countries that had a bigger military than italy in 1900.
Britain, France, Germany.
85 of 117
In the 1890s, what percentage of the South had no roads?
90%
86 of 117
Which natural resources did Italy not posses?
Coal and Oil
87 of 117
What was Italys GDP growth in the period 1860-1896?
41%
88 of 117
What was the GDP growth for Britain, France and Germany?
40-50%
89 of 117
HOw did Italy's death rate compare to Britain's in the 1880's?
26/29 - 19 in Britain
90 of 117
Who dominated the Italian political system?
Liberal Oligarchs
91 of 117
Why did Italy have a lack of Itaian identity?
2% Spoke Italian
92 of 117
What did the Catholic Church do to further delegitimise the Liberal Political system?
Told people not to vote
93 of 117
How did the Catholic Church undermine the Liberal state in the South?
Stirred up unrest
94 of 117
What percentage ofthe population were dependant on teh land for their livlihood in 1900?
60%
95 of 117
What is trasformissmo?
Corruption in government
96 of 117
What percentage of the population could vote in 1870?
2%
97 of 117
What percentage of the population could vote in 1900?
25%
98 of 117
In the 1890's what percentage of the population could speak Italian?
2%
99 of 117
Why was the taxation system unfair on the poor?
Higher taxes.
100 of 117
When did the war in Abysinia happen?
1896
101 of 117
Who ordered the war in Abysinia?
Crispi
102 of 117
What was the result of the war in Abysinia?
Italy was defeated and it was a huge humiliation
103 of 117
When did the Libyan war happen?
1911
104 of 117
When did Italy leave the triple alliance?
1914
105 of 117
Who declared, "We ave made Italy, we must now make Italians"?
D'Azeglio
106 of 117
What were two consequences of inflation?
Savings became worthless, people couldn't afford what they used to afford.
107 of 117
Who benefitted from inflation?
Companies
108 of 117
Which two Munitions companies collapsed because of the end of the War?
Fiat and Pirelli
109 of 117
How many strikes were there in 1919?
1870
110 of 117
How many factories were occupied in Aug-Sept 1920?
Over 300
111 of 117
Which foreign event inspired social disruption?
Russian Revolution
112 of 117
Why did the PSI win 156 seats in the 1919 election?
Universal male suffrage, meaning more supporters e.g workers were able to vote.
113 of 117
How many workers were involved in the occupations of the factories?
400,000
114 of 117
What was Giolitti's electoral pact with Mussolini called?
Pact of Pacification
115 of 117
How many seats did the fascists win in the 1921 election?
35
116 of 117
How many seats did the PSI win inthe 1919 election?
156
117 of 117

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What percentage of the population relied on agriculture for their income in 1870?

Back

91% in the South

Card 3

Front

What is the name of the style of politics used by politicians during this period?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did Italy suffer an economic depression in the early 1890's?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which two politicians borrowed huge amounts in what became known as the Banca Romana scandal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Italy - 19th and 20th century resources »