History Paper 1: Cold War

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  • Created by: elliesp
  • Created on: 01-05-16 16:22
When did the Yalta conference take place?
Feb 1945
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What was agreed at yalta?
to punish war criminals, liberated countries should chose their own gov, E.Europe seen as soviet sphere of influence, agreed to join UN, Stalin agreed to enter the war against japan once germany surrendered, germany would be split into 4 zones
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What was disagreed at yalta?
Stalin wanted USSR's borders to move West into Poland and in turn poland could move its borders west into germany (other allies disagreed but compromised and accepted as long as didn't interfere with greece).
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when was the potsdam conference?
July 1945
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what happened in 1945?
hitler committed suicide in april and then germany surrendered unconditionally in may. Also, USA had recently tested an atomic bomb and had a new President - Truman, who was more anti-communist. Stalin's armies were occupying Eastern Europe.
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When was Germany divided? How? What happened in each division?
Germany divided in 1945, split into France, USA, USSR and Britain sectors. USSR crippled it's sector as wanted to control it & make sure it didn't go back to old ways (e.g nazism) but other allies helped their division recover and industrialise.
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So why were the USA and USSR wary of each other at the Potsdam conference?
USA feared USSR as they now had more land power, USSR feared USA as they had tested an atomic bomb
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What was disagreed at potsdam?
Stalin wanted to cripple germany (big reparations etc) so wouldn't be a threat (Russia suffered most), allies disagreed =didn't want repeat TofV & wanted Germany to be reasonably stable so could still trade, C&T said liberated should choose own gov.
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why were there tensions at potsdam?
USA and Britain alarmed as communism was spreading in E.Europe, common enemies Germany & Japan were defeated, Stalin set up com. gov. in Poland against wishes of most poles, Truman more anti-communist, USA tested a-bomb,no agreement at end.
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How many Russians died in ww2?
20 million
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who were the red army?
the soviet army
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how did stalin create his "buffer zone"/ soviet sphere of influence?
in the countries the red army liberated in ww2, the governments were over thrown and a communist government was put into power. The communists controlled the army and a secret police force and terrified their opponents in order to ensure full support
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By what year had Stalin influenced all of the governments in Eastern Europe to become communist? apart from which country?
1949, except Yugoslavia
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When did Churchill make his Iron Curtain speech?
March 1946
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Explain the "Iron Curtain"
9 months after potsdam Stalin dominated most E.Europe,making allies wary, as com.countries in east &cap.countries in west being split. Hard to develop europe as a whole, but Stalin said reduces invasion threat for USSR. Other allies mistrust Stalin.
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What were the reasons Stalin wanted Soviet expansion?
power via sphere of influence, protection from buffer zone and less potential for invasion.
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define the "cold war"?
a war between the USA and USSR in which no direct contact actually occurred, however, tensions were very high
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Name the countries USSR took over?
Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania
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Why was Yugoslavia not part of the soviet sphere of influence?
Yugoslavia wasn't liberated by soviets (no Red army there), it was liberated by Marshall Tito who was determined to apply communism in his own way, so Yugoslavia was banned from comiform in 1948.
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when did Stalin set up cominform? what was it?
1947, an alliance of communist countries who obeyed the soviet rule.
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what was the effect of soviet expansion?
Britain and USA worried about how much control Stalin had (hadn't envisioned he'd have this much influence when agreed), Truman saw it as an attempt to spread communism by stalin and viewed it as a potential threat.
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explain the Greek civil war.
After ww2 there was a civil war with royalists & communists, as communists wanted to enforce communism in Greece. But Britain sent 40,000 troops & money but ran out of money in 1947. US financed the army's stay in Greece to contain communism.
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how was the USSR able to take over countries in Eastern Europe after ww2?
red army left troops behind in countries they liberated in ww2 so had some power there, formed coalition after ww2 & gave communists key roles e.g in army&police, used roles to arrest opposition etc, after this had a rigged election & communists won.
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what was containment?
In places where communism threatened to takeover, America promised to stop them doing so against the country's will. They couldn't wipe out communism all together, but they could stop it spreading by preventing them taking over anymore countries.
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what was the Truman Doctrine? When was it introduced?
Intrdouced in 1947. The truman doctrine said that america would send money, supplies and aid to any country under communist threat who needed it. This was contain communism and stop it spreading.
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What was the Marshall Plan? When was it introduced?
Truman thought communism suceeded in poverty. So in June 1947 George Marshall went to Europe to investigate economy,& it was ruined. congress gave $7bil to set up programme where can apply for food, grants for equipment & transport improvements
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Explain the Berlin Crisis? when did it happen?
JUne 1948 France USA and Britain joined their zones as had similar ideas, and created a new currency which they said would help trade. Stalin saw the currency change as a threat & next day cut off all road&rail links to West. West flew in supplies.
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What was the Berlin Blockade?
Stalin completely separated the East and West sides of Germany by a blockade meaning that all rail and road links from east to west were cut off.
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How did the West respond to the blockade?
The berlin airlift. The West simply flew in their supplies via planes.
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Why did stalin make the blockade?
Wasn't told about currency change or election plans, so became suspicious of the West. Also, by introducing new currency & elections these were both factors that would help Germany flourish & recover (against Stalin’s plans)
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When did Stalin abandon the blockade? why did it fail?
1949, allies wouldn't give in. they thought Berlin was a test to see if they'd surrender their zones so he could go on spreading communism. Truman needed to stick by containment. West flew in supplies. Fear of war.
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What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade?
USSR tested atomic bomb, tension very high, formal division of Germany, West cation of NATO in 1949 and USSR creates Warsaw pact
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What was NATO?
Nato was a military alliance between USA and West Europe countries that agreed if anyone attacked them, it would be considered an act against all of them (aimed at USSR).NATO was essentially the Truman Doctrine in action, containing communism.
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What caused NATO to be formed?
Berlin Blockade, China turned communist 1949, Russia tested atomic bomb 1949, containment policy (fear of domino effect)
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What was the significance of NATO?
Nato was important as it proved the US was committed to protecting and defending West Europe. Stalin saw NATO as a threat. NATO also allowed West to set up air bases which had planes containing nuclear weapons incase of attack.
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why was the Warsaw pact made? when?
warsaw pact made in 1953 when West Germany joined NATO, as USSR had been trying to reduce the chances of another German invasion, so they saw this as a huge threat against them.
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When did Stalin die? Replacement?
1953, Khruschev replaced him
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When was the Korean war? Who faced who?
1950-53, North Korea fought South Korea. North supported by USSR and China, South Supported by USA. built up tensions between USS and USSR again as were direct opponents.
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when was the Berlin Wall built? why?
1961, because people from east moving to west because it was more industrialised so east's economy was suffering. Also, in 1960 a U2 spy plane flew over Russia and was shot down, USSR angry. 1961 Kennedy =pres. & increased defence & nuclear shelters
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what effect did berlin wall have?
families divided, stations closed, main electricity, water and gas cut off, Stalin crippled east as easier to control but west continued to flourish.
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what was the missile gap?
the missile gap was a myth that claimed USSR had more missiles than they and so had superiority over them, this made the uSA frightened as they were afraid that the USSR would attack knowing they had an advantage.
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what was M.A.D? why was it developed?
MAD was an agreement between the USSR and USA that said if one of them launched an attack, there would be an immediate response, causing the destruction of each country. This was used as a deterrent, as neither would act in case of destruction.
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explain nuclear arms race (chain of events)
1945 USA a-bomb, 1949 USSR a-bomb, 1952 H bomb USA, 1953 USSR H bomb, 1957 USSR ICBMs and sputnik, 1958 USA ICBMs, 1959 USA submarines
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What were the reasons to prove USA was responsible for cold war?
truman doctrine caused tension, tested a bomb, very strongly capitalist and close minded
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what were the reasons USSR responsible for cold war?
armies didn't leave liberated countries after ww2, at yalta stalin wanted more of pollards borders, forcibly set up communist party in poland, set up com inform to control communist leaders
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what were the relations between USA and Cuba when batista ruled?
many businesses USA owned, USA had large naval base pf island,provided Batista with economic and military support.
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Who was Batista?
an anti-communist corrupt dictator, who was very unpopular. under his rule most cubans lived in poverty.
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what was the cuban revolution? when?
1958, castro (a popular communist sympathiser) overthrew batista and formed new gov. wanted to set free cuba from USA influence, nationalised american industries and approached communist countries for money.
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what happened when Castro became leader? (in terms of USA)
many cuban exiles fled to USA and organised pressure groups emending action against Castro, Castro took over US businesses in Cuba, particularly agricultural businesses. He took their land and distributed it to peasants.
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what did eisenhower do in response to castors actions?
got CIA to investigate ways of overthrowing Castro, provided support and funds to Cuabn exiles, investigated ways to disrupt cuban economy e.g refuse to buy sugar off them (Cuba's main export)
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How did Castro deal with this?
Russia bought the sugar instead and supplied the island with oil. Khrushchev signed a trade agreement giving Cuab 100mil in economic aid. Cuba became under soviet influence.
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when did Kennedy break off relations with Cuba? meaning?
Jan 1961, made castro think they were preparing for attack.USA didn't invade directly but weren't prepared to tolerate a soviet satellite in the USA sphere of influence and so plans to overthrow Castro shaped.
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when was the bay of pigs? what was it?
april 1961, rather than direct invasion, kennedy supplied arms equipment and transport for 1400 exiles to invade and overthrow castro. met by 20,000 cuban troops with tanks and modern weapons- failed disastrously.
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why was the bay of pigs such a failure?
reluctance of USA for direct conflict, cuban exiles were massively outnumbered, cuban troops were trained and exiles were ordinary people.
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what was the impact of Bay of pigs?
made USA look weak,made castro and Khruschev suspicious of US policy, Made Khrushchev become more in favour of Russia, and communism.
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when was the cuban missile crisis?
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what were the causes of cuban missile crisis?
long term: high tensions, nuclear arms race. Short term: bay of pigs, Fidel overthrew castro.
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What happened after the Bay of Pigs?
Castro was suspicious of America and asked USSR for help, khrushchev sent them soldiers, arms and supplies. As a result, in 1961 Castro announced he was communist and became USSR ally, and in 1962 had best army in latin america.
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Did the Americans mind about Russia giving Cuba supplies?
No, as they were aware it was purely defensive after having just been attacked by America. However, were worried Russia may supply them nuclear missiles, allowing them perfect access to america. Also didn't like communism in their sphere of influence
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What was concluded by America in September 1961? and how was this backed up?
It was believed that USSR wouldn't put missiles on Cuba, and Kennedy warned that he would do whatever it took to stop Cuba becoming a military base, however Khrushchev assured him this wouldn't happen.
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What was the october crisis in 1962? what exact date?
14th of America 1962, u2 spy plane flew over cuba and took detailed photos of cuban missile bases. experts concluded the missiles would be ready in 7 days.
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what options did kennedy have after finding out about the nuclear bases? effect?
1) do nothing: USA had greater nuclear power could easily destroy them, but didn't wanna look weak. 2) air attack:destroy missiles before use, but can't guarantee complete destruction & would induce retaliation. REST OF ANSWERS CONTD ON NEXT SLIDE
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continue the answers to kennedy's options...
3)invasion: destroy missiles&overthrow Castro, but guarantee response &bay of pigs failed.4) Diplomatic pressure(UN involved): avoid conflict, but weak. 5)naval blockade: not act of war, shows serious, pressure,but missiles still active in cuba.
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What did Kennedy actually do? why?
naval blockade, as it wasn't a direct act of war but showed the USA were serious and also put pressure on Khrushchev& decision was on him not Kennedy.
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How did Khruchshev react to the blockade?
Khrushchev sent letter to Kennedy:would dismantle missiles if didn't attack Cuba. Before Kennedy replied, sent 2nd letter &demands remove missiles in Turkey, u2 shot down same day. JFK ignored u2 incident &agreed to 1st letter, secretly agreed 2nd.
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why did Khrushchev put missiles on Cuba in first place?
Missile gap: USA had more long range missiles than them, by putting in Cuba easy access and restores nuclear balance. Wanted to pressure kennedy & strengthen his position. Wanted to defend Cuba as was only communist state in West Hemisphere.
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What effect did Cuban Missile Crisis have on cold war?
Helped thaw cold war, both leaders saw how close they'd come to nuclear war& so more prepared to take steps to reduce that risk. 1963, nuclear ban treaty signed. missile gap didn't matter, as USA knew USSR had enough nuclear weapons to cause destruct
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what were the outcomes of the cuban missile crisis for USA?
soviet missiles removed, Kennedy's reputation renewed as stood up to Khrushchev & made him back down. Kennedy also stood up to hardliners in his gov. encouraging invasion, & escaped nuclear war.
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what were the outcomes of cuban missile crisis for USSR?
Secuirty & independence of Cuba guaranteed & missiles removed from turkey. But Khrushchev lost prestige, but played it off as a peacemaker (made 1st move to back down). USSR humiliated &made to put missiles on decks of ships so USA could count them
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what were the outcomes of cuban missile crisis for Cuba?
Castro was upset at Krushchev's deal with Kennedy but had little choice as they needed support of USSR. although missiles removed, Cuba remained important base for communists in South America.
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Card 2


What was agreed at yalta?


to punish war criminals, liberated countries should chose their own gov, E.Europe seen as soviet sphere of influence, agreed to join UN, Stalin agreed to enter the war against japan once germany surrendered, germany would be split into 4 zones

Card 3


What was disagreed at yalta?


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Card 4


when was the potsdam conference?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what happened in 1945?


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