History Paper 1: Weimar and Rise of Hitler

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  • Created by: elliesp
  • Created on: 20-04-16 20:19
What happened in 1918?
Kaiser abdicated, WW1 ended, Weimar republic created in Germany
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What is the role of the chancellor in the weimar republic?
appointed by president and majority of reichstag, in charge of day to day running of government (like english priminister)
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what is the role of the president in weimar republic?
they elect the chancellor, and their duties are mostly ceremonial and representative (like the queen). Most of the significant decisions is made by chancellor instead.
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main features of the weimar constitution?
democratic government (fair due to elections), proportional representation, all women and men over 20 allowed to vote, article 48.
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Strengths of Weimar constitution?
role of chancellor: system fairer as chancellor chosen by president and has to be supported by reichstag, proportional representation: no. of seats proportional to votes- more fair, everyone has equal say. also is a democratic government.
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weaknesses of weimar?
article 48: doesn't state what an emergency is & so allowed presidents to take advantage of it & make laws suited to them. Proportional representation meant too many parties to make effective decisions, & was hard to get majority. signed treaty of V
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what problems did weimar republic face in 1919?
germany signed treaty, which caused uproar and led to "stab in the back theory" - made weimar unpopular. spartacist uprising.
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what was the circumstances around the abdication of the kaiser?
after the war there was lots of unrest in germany because they were starved due to british blockades, stopping food imports etc getting to germany. Germany was also v. financially unstable,so germans blamed this on the gov. causing kaiser to resign
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Which two political groups were competing to run the government? (weimar)
spartacists and social democrats
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Who were the social democrats supported by? and what wing were they?
left wing (communist) and supported by working class
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Who were the spartacists supported by?what wing were they?
left wing and working class
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what is the difference between the beliefs of spartacists and social democrats?
social dems- moderate (so believe about working their way into power through the gov). Spartacists are extremists and try t take control by taking over sox. dems.
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Who was the leader of the spartacists?
Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknect
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When was the spartacist uprising and what was it?
spartacist uprising was in 1919, 5000 spartacists staged a revolution against the gov and went on strike. They took over newspaper and communication headquarters in Berlin and armed themselves. Gov moved to weimar and hired freikorps to put it down.
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How did the freikorps take down the spartacist uprising and why?
the freikorps hated communists, and were ex army militants so were able to destroy it easily. Both leaders were arrested and iterrogated. both murdered.
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What is the downside of Weimar crushing spartacist uprising?
they'd no longer get votes from left wing supporters
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Who were the leaders of france, USA and britain in 1919?
France: Clemenceau, Britain: Lloyd George, USA: Wilson
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What was the vision of each leader of what Germany's punishment should be after ww1?
France was bitter as it suffered most during war so wanted harsh punishment. Britain and USA thought Germany should be punished but let them to stay strong enough to trade & stop them turning communist as they were wary of it spreading from russia.
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What were the points of the treaty?
army reduced to 100,000 & only 6 navy battleships, no german troops allowed in rhineland, had to accept responsibility, £6.6 mil reparations, not allowed in LoN, german colonies given britain and france
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why weren't german troops allowed in the rhineland?
this was the area closest to france
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what are the arguments that the treaty was too harsh?
britain declared war not germany, so not really fully responsible, innocent civilians were being punished, germany would be unable to defend themselves bc of lack of army.
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arguments treaty not harsh enough?
damaged the majority of france and killed thousands of innocent cvialins.
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arguments treaty was fair?
They damaged our countries and so need to repay the losses, so many soldiers and civilians lost their lives to germans, also germany have been allowed to kept their army so they're not totally vulnerable, but aren't a threat to invade again.
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things britain liked about treaty of Versailles/ things disliked
we got germany's colonies and some land, also able to put blame on germany (guilt clause). HOWEVER, wouldn't be able to trade,germany may want revenge, also not able to join LoN so stops world peace.
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What was the stab in the back theory?
a myth that claimed that weimar betrayed the germans by signing the treaty and if the kaiser was still in power he wouldn't have signed it. They believed Germany was capable of winning if they hadn't have been betrayed.
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What does left wing party mean? aimed at?
communist, believe in equality -aimed towards people who can't support themselves.
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what does right wing mean? aimed at?
capitalist - believe in economic freedom and that everyone should look after themselves. aimed at upper class.
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when was the kapp putch? what was it?
1920. Led by Wolfgang kapp; wanted to bring back kasier & hated weimar (believed stab in the back). Rebellion was organised to set up a new government. freikorps /rightwing involved !! army ordered to stop it but wouldn't as freikorps were ex army.
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how did the kapp putsch show how weak weimar was?
the weimar looked weak as they didn't even have any authority over their own army, as they had refused to follow their commands.
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So how did Ebert handle the situation if the army weren't on his side?
1 of Ebert's main supporters was trade unions, so the workers listen to trade unions. ebert calls strike in mass protest & after a day or 2, kapp is worried people are siding Ebert & wouldn't support him in gov. after 3 days kapp accepts defeat.
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When did Ebert become chancellor?
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what was the crisis of 1923?
Germany didn't keep up with reparations so the French army occupied the Ruhr (most industrial city) to pressurise. Germans striked in protest,but passive resistance caused bankruptcy. printed more money but hyperinflation caused. Also,munich putsch.
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What was the munich putsch?
The munich putsch was an attempt revolution by Nazis in Bavaria, to overthrow Weimar -as they felt betrayed by Weimar that Stressemann called off the passive resistance in Germany (gave in to French), making Germany look weak.
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When was Hitler put in prison?
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what was the solution to hyperinflation?
Stressemann introduced new temporary currency "retenmark"to replace valueless money. Then, next year permanent currency "reichmark". Also persuaded reparations reduced (Young Plan) and got loans from USA (Dawes Plan)
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When was the Dawes plan? & Young plan?
Dawes Plan: American loans (800 million marks) and Young plan: reparations reduced by allies to make it more manageable.
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Why did Hitler start a revolution/ the munich putsch?
HItler had the support of Ludendorf (former army leader), wanted to become dictator, Nazi support has grown in Bavaria.
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Success of munich putsch?
Gained a lot of publicity,in prison wrote a book about his ideas, used his trial to preach nazi ideas, giving even more publicity.
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failure of munich putsch?
easily crushed by army, didn't overthrow gov, didn't achieve any power, no support from army.
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What was the locarno pact?
Pact created between britain france and belgium, agreed not to invade each other and Germany accepted it couldn't get back land lost from treaty of v
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when were the golden years and what were they?
1924-29. Resistance ended in ruhr, new currency, Dawes plan, employment rose, Germany made member of LoN, young plan, locarno pact,kellog briand pact, mass production
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why did the golden years come to an end?
wall st crash in america massively affected germany as they were reliant on american loans to keep their economy afloat so they entered a depression in 1929.
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in what ways were the golden years not as golden as they seemed?
Although Germans were happier as employment had gone up & were more finically stable, Germany wasn't actually stable itself- as the stability of their economy was achieved by US loans. so when america entered depression, so did germany
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When did Hitler join German Workers party? Renames them?
1919, then in 1920 renames them "National Socialist German Workers party
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When was SA set up?
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What were the Nazi tactics before 1923?
before Hitler was arrested he wanted to enter the government by force (munic putsch)
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What was the Nazis mindset in 1920s?
provide strong gov, increase pensions, remove all jews from positions of leadership, abolish treaty, destroy communism, destroy weimar, re-arm germany
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Who were the SA?
formed to protect Nazi speakers at meetings from left wing opponents. all former members of army or freikorps so knew how to control massive uproars and made police look powerless. Gave hitler confidence as showed weimar lacked leadership
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When was the great depression?
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What were the effects of the depression in Germany?
unemployment rose to 6 mil, wages were cut, unemployment benefit reduced and raised taxes. Once unemployment benefit cut soc. deems. resigned from gov. in protest
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Which groups suffered as a result of depression?
Business owners; lost consumers and income from raised taxes, Young people: by 1933 50% of 16-30 yr unemployed and 60% uni grads couldn't get job, Factory Workers:by 1932 40% unemployed, unemployment benefit cut too.
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what was the effect of the depression on the support for the nazis?
during the depression many turned to communism, but this frightened wealthy businessmen etc. Many middle class people realised that democracy was failing and that they counter need a strong gov and a leader who promised to provide employment
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Why did so few people vote for Hitler before 1930?
although germans wanted weimar overthrown they thought nazi approach was too violent to be thought what Germans wanted in a leader, also they promoted 'work freedom & bread' but when germany let into LoN & got USA loans they had already acheived this
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why did Hindemburg not elect Hitler as chancellor in 1932?
Even though he was largest party in Reichstag, no one liked him and wanted to work with him so Hindenburg didn't want a chancellor who was disliked and distrusted.
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When was papen chancellor?
summer 1932 - Dec 1932
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When was schleicher chancellor?
Dec 1932 - end of Jan 1933
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When was Hindenburg president?
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Why didn't Hindenburg appoint Papen chancellor instead of hitler?
Schleicher had dissapointed hindenburg as he couldn't achieve the majority, so Hindenburg was desperate for Papen back to raise support but was advised it wouldn't be wise to bring back such an unpopular figure as may cause movement against Hindembur
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What did Papen do to get back into power?
papen negotiated with hindenburg and eventually hindenburg offered hitler vice chancellor, which he denied, and was then offered chancellor and papen made vice.
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So why did Hindenburg eventually elect him in 1933?
Nazis largest party in reichstag and usually leader of largest party was chancellor, and he thought that he would be able to control him by keeping him as chancellor so Hitler was satisfied but Hindenburg still had power over him.
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The main factors causing HItler to become president?
actions of hindenburg, great depression, nazi propaganda, largest party in 1932 elections
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reasons stopping hitler becoming a dictator in 1933?
any new laws must be passed by reichstag, vulnerable as president can sack him at any time, lots of opposition still.
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When was the Reichstag fire?
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When was the enabling act introduced?
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when and why did hitler create coalition with nationalists?
1933 and so that he could eliminate competition and achieve a majority.
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when were the opposing parties banned from election?
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When was the night of the long knives? what was it?
1934, all SA rounded up and shot because hitler now didn't trust them as Rohm (Head of SA) had been planning a plot against Hitler. also, SA had grown very large and posed a threat to him, so he eliminated them.
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When did Hindenburg die?
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What were the factors which helped hitler become president?
hitler chancellor, reichstag fire & communist blamed so enabling act passed, communists & socialists banned from participating in election, opponents intimidated by SA at election, alliance with nationalists, other opponents banned, hindenburg dies
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when did hitler declare himself president and head of army? what did he make the soldiers in the army do?
1934 a few weeks after hindenburg's death, swear an oath of loyalty to him, so hitler's in total power with no threats and no opponents = dictator.
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why was the enabling act passed?
communist blamed for reichstag fire, making it look like communist plot so other parties went against them too &communists banned from reichstag. coalition with nationalists helped nazis get support from reichstag for enabling act
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why did the parties in the reichstag agree to enabling act?
more scared of communism than nazism, hitler was strong leader and was only answer to depression, knew weimar was weak and wouldn't last long
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why was there little opposition to nazis?
fear, all other political opponents banned in 1933, propaganda and censorship meant that people didn't receive reliable information
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Who were the SS?
aryan soldiers used to intimidate germans into worshiping hitler . had unlimited power to arrest people and search houses etc. also in charge of concentration camps
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why was propaganda so important for nazis?
make people believe in what the nazis where doing and turn a blind eye to everything they were doing wrong. indoctrinated germans into thinking that wrong was right
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what was the jewish business boycott? when?
in 1933, hitler ordered a boycott of jewish businesses. The SA stood outside them to prevent customers from entering and painted Jude on the windows.
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what was the sterilisation law? when?
in 1933, "undesirables" such as beggars or handicapped people were compulsorily sterilised so that they were unable to have children.
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explain the process of the persecution of the jews.
hitler didn't like that jews were prominent in prestigious jobs such as lawyers etc,so blamed jews for germany's failure in ww1, introduced nuremberg laws, arranged kristallnacht, banned from schools, herded into ghettos, final solution
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what were the nuremburg laws? when?
1935. deprived jews of their civil rights e.g were forbidden to vote, not allowed to marry germans, weren't allowed to go out at night etc
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when was kristallnacht and what was it?
1938, jewish homes, businesses and synagogues attacked and destroyed as a response to assassination of german diplomat by a polish jew.
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when were jewish children banned from school?
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what happened to jews in 1939?
herded into overcrowded ghettos and then into concentration camps where they were gassed (final solution)
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What were hitlers methods of indoctrinating young children?
german girls league: shaped girls into perfect future housewife and learnt nazis morals in hope of creating perfect new generation. Hitler youth: learnt military skills & nazi knowledge. strength & courage increased to prepare them for war
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who were informers?
people who told the nazis if someone didn't support them (e.g if someone didn't have a nazi flag up)
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what was the role of women in nazi germany?
seen and not heard, kinder kirche kuche, didnt go to work, encourage dot have as many kids as possible, provided foundation for perfect new generation
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what was the role of nazi women during the war?
encourage dmen to fight, worked in factories, worked as nurses, collected scrap metal, could volunteer to have a baby for member of SS.
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name the youth opposition groups and their cause.
swing youth: listened to swing music & wore makeup & accepted jews (defied nazi expectations), white rose group: distributed leaflets against nazis, Eidelweiss Pirates: went on hikes, sang and showed violence towards nazis.
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why did some hitler youths rebel in ww2?
when all the older leaders left for war in ww2, the teenagers were left to take over, however most members didn't like being bossed around by people hardly older than them and so joined opposition groups
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why was dealing with the german economy very important for nazis?
because they came into power through the economic depression so if they didn't deal with it's problems they would face a lot of opposition and risk being overthrown
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what was the new plan? when was it introduced? who by?
1934-36 by schacht minister of economy. wanted to reduce unemployment and increase revenue.
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What was the four year plan? when was it introduced? who by?
1936-39 by Goering, who had little knowledge about economy. wanted to prepare for war in 4yrs & become self sufficient. He got big businesses to make synthetic war materials, reduce imports, increase war materials produced, used forced labour
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why did the 4 yr plan fail?
arms production was prioritised over food, which led to food shortages. also, germany still depended on 1/3 of foreign imports so the only way they could fully become self efficient was if they invaded other countries
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How did Hitler try to maintain full employment?
stopped paying reparations & invested in german companies, began RAD (building autobahns etc - which made work for 80,00 men), rearment created jobs, army conscription, jews & women sacked & jobs given to aryan men.
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which working people did well under the nazis? why?
small business men: trade doubled 1933-37,new department stores ban,jew competitors gone. Farmers:food prices up,nazis said v.important group= debts written off. Big businesses:benefit from rearment, tradeunions gone,industry rise,70%salary increase
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how did they suffer?
farmers: strict on amount of produce, labour shortage=workers left bc wanted better pay. Small businesses: still lot of competition from department stores. Big businesses: made to produce what gov wanted &gov took over prices,wages,profit and imports
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who was the working group worst affected by nazi germany?
unskilled workers didn't have stable jobs are were most effected by depression, 6 million unemployed and if unemployed no benefit.
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why did hitler try to influence the church?
Hitler believed that religion was a threat to the Nazis' control over people's minds
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why did the church conform with hitler at first?
they believed the new gov. protected them from communism and they liked the fact nazis focused on family values.
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what did hitler do to make the church suit nazi policies?
1933 hitler made pope sign concordat agreeing that if he allowed them religious freedom- pope wouldn't interfere w/ political matters, non-nazi priests & pastors sent to cc's, reich church set up= banned bible & worshiped medieval beliefs.
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what were the main features of the nazi terror state?
SPIN CGP: **, police, informers, nazi peoples courts, concentration camps, gestapo, propaganda.
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what power did the police have? and why were they essential?
police force run by himmler so ensured nazis didn't get persecuted for criminal activity. arrest opposition etc but not much power compared to SS who had 500,000 men.
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what was the purpose of the SS?
SS were a military style organisation created to be personal bodyguards of Hitler. They eventually controlled intelligence, police and security & were responsible for extermination of undesirables.
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who were the informers?
small groups of people who report people who are opposed to the nazis.
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what sort of propaganda did the nazis use?
newspapers were censored, radio broadcasts were controlled, pro-hitler posters etc were displayed everywhere so that germans only received biased information about the nazis and became indoctrinated.
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what were nazi people's courts? and why were they important?
they were courts that made sure people opposed to the nazis were found guilty of any crime accused for, and nazis etc were always found innocent.
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when were concentration camps set up? which groups were sent to them? who ran the camps?
1933, nazi opponents, communists, jews, gypsies, homosexuals. SS ran the camps.
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what were the main methods of control under the nazis?
WET CPR: work, education, terror, culture, propaganda, religion.
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How did the nazis influence culture?
no jazz, books written by jews publicly burned, homosexuals persecuted= dint fit perfect family image.
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how did the nazis control education?
non-nazi teachers sacked, textbooks re-written to include nazi ideas, history glorified germany, concentration on fitness, girls taught cookery, boys taught science and maths, jews kicked out, hitler youth and german league of girls compulsory.
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how did the nazis control work life?
RAD sent young men on public works, conscription in 1936, banned trade unions 1933, Kdf provided cheap leisure opportunities & kept everyone happy after trade union abolishment.
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what was the july bomb plot? when was it?
1944, the aim to kill hitler and take over german army as believed that hitler was dooming germany to defeat.
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how well was germany doing in 1939-41?
Good. rationing was going well and even 2/5 of germans ate better than they did before the war. could trade luxury items for money. huge stocks of luxury goods imported from countries germany conquered.
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how well was germany doing from 1941-43?
the tides turn against germany as hitler ordered invasion of USSR & army left in 4 yr battle. Propaganda methods used in desperate attempt to keep up morale at home, e.g save fuel, work hard etc.
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how well was germany doing from 1943-44?
total war!! germany had to be prepared by producing arms, growing food and tying to be as efficient as possible. There were labour shortages so more women put into work & jews worked to death in concentration camps to provide for war.
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when were germany defeated?
May 1945
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what took place in 1944-45?
goebbels head of total war efforts & in desperation put non german servants &workers in armament factories, save fuel reduce railway & postal use, entertainment places closed, compulsory labour raised to 50, home guard formed. Gov. plans in chaos.
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What is the role of the chancellor in the weimar republic?


appointed by president and majority of reichstag, in charge of day to day running of government (like english priminister)

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what is the role of the president in weimar republic?


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Card 4


main features of the weimar constitution?


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Strengths of Weimar constitution?


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