History Of Surgery (SWHS)

  • Created by: Alissa K.
  • Created on: 22-10-15 18:30
What were the main features of surgery, pre 1850?
It was painful, quick and messy.
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What was the most common form of surgery pre 1850?
Amputation, and bloodletting
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List 3 of the main problems of surgery pre 1850
Bloody loss, infection, shock, pain, inaccuracy and mistakes
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Who developed Nitrus Oxide (Laughing Gas)
Humphrey Davy in 1799
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In what year was Ether developed?
1846, by William Morton
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Identify 3 problems with Ether Gas
It irritated lungs,it was difficult to move around, made patients vomit, made them sleep for days
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Why was there opposition to anestethics?
It was new, they didn't know what dose to give and were scared when people died (eg. Hannah Greener) from overdose, they didn't know the side effects, surgeons believed that speed was a skill
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Who discovered Chloroform and how did he discover it's anesthetic properties?
James Simpson, when he was messing around with it with friends and they knocked themselves out.
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What were problems with Anesthetics?
It didn't make surgery safer, infections could be carried deeper into the body, there were side effects, dosage was often uncertain.
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What does Antiseptic and Aseptic mean?
Antiseptic-Something that fights against sepsis (which is a condition where bacteria attacks flesh causing decay) aseptic is free from infection causing microbes (sterile)
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In what way did Ignaz Semmelweis reduce infection?
Encouraged hand washing which led to mortality rates in a maternity was dropping to 1%List
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List some of Florence Nightingale's achievements
Set up the first professional nursing school, introduced trained care for the poor, higher standards of hospital care
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Why did Louis Pasteur's Germ Theory help the development of Carbolic acid?
Pasteur's theory about microbes provided an explanation as to why carbolic acid worked as an antiseptic.
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What did Joseph Lister develop?
Catgut (Which could be sterilized and dissolved in the body to replace silk) Carbolic Acid to be used as an antiseptic
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3 reasons why doctors opposed Lister
Didn't accept microbes caused infection, Carbolic solution slowed the operations, doctors copied the methods wrong leading to criticism, equipment was expensive
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Name the old method of controlling blood loss
Cautery, where a hot iron was pressed against a wound to seal the blood vessels.
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New method of controlling blood loss
Androise Pare developed ligatures (silk to tie blood vessels, which weren't effective) Lister then developed catgut to tie the blood vessels together
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Old method of replacing blood
Transfusing blood between humans and animals. This did not work because the blood was incompatible.
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When were blood groups discovered?
1901/1902 by Karl Landsteiner
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What could be added to blood to make it last longer?
Citrate glucose
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What advancements did WW1 make to surgery?
Blood transfusions, brain surgery, plastic surgery, prosthetic limbs,
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Who set up a plastic surgery unit?
Harold Gilles, who developed the method of transferring skin from different parts of the body, rolling into a tube and attaching it to where the graph was needed
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In what ways did WW1 hinder surgery?
Interrupted previous research, focused solely on wounds, surgeons were under great pressure
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Card 2


What was the most common form of surgery pre 1850?


Amputation, and bloodletting

Card 3


List 3 of the main problems of surgery pre 1850


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Card 4


Who developed Nitrus Oxide (Laughing Gas)


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Card 5


In what year was Ether developed?


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