what are some features of a cold war ?
threats, allies, try to out do each other with technology
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what was the cold war ?
when the USA and the USSR fell out and became rivals by competing with each other
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people can use their own money to set up their own business and employ people to work for them, all the money which is made in profit then goes back to the company owner, workers get paid low wages and the business man takes most of the profit
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the people elect a government and then the government collect taxes from the people and decide where the taxes are going to be invested, all the people then work and the money goes back to the government and the profits go to the people
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what is the main concept of capitalism ?
that you have to work hard to achieve well
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what is the main concept of communism ?
that everyone is equal and has the same opportunities
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what did the USA believe in the cold war ?
that complete freedom was very important!, they feared communism
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what did the USSR believe in the cold war ?
the state was put before any human rights, that communism was the fairest way
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what were the aims for the USA during the cold war ?
wanted democracy, help Germany recover
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what were the aims for the USSR during the cold war ?
wanted huge reprocutions for Germany, more states to protect the USSR from being invaded again
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why were people fearful of the communist revolution in the USA ?
loss of voting, democratic systems, freedom, rights to own businesses and land,
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what animal represented communism ?
a bull because the whole idea of communism is ****
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why did Stalin dislike the USA ?
because they helped fight against the Russian revolution in 1917, they watched hitler gain power through appeasement which angered Stalin
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what is a marriage of convenience ?
a marriage which you agree to just to get something out of
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who were the big three ?
Russia, USA, Britain
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why was the relationship between Russia, Britain and the USA a marriage of convenience ?
because they all had a common goal which was to defeat hitler and they knew they would be stronger together then apart
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how many conferences were held which all leaders of the big three attended called ?
3 in Tehran, 1943, Yalta, 1945(feb), Potsdam, 1945(july)
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why did Britain and the USA agree to open up a second front in WW2 ?
so that they would split the German defences, weakening Germany
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what did the big three aim to achieve by the end of the war ?
that they would beat Nazi-Germany and Japan
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what was agreed about Japan by the big three ?
that the USSR would declare war on Japan once Hitler had been defeated
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what would happen to land in Poland after WW2 ?
Poland would gain land from Germany but loose some by Russia
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why was it important to Stalin to keep land in Poland at the time of WW2 ?
so that he could build 'buffer states' to help protect Russia from being invaded again
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why was Stalin concerned when going into a conference in the war ?
because he was convinced that Britain and USA purposely wanted to see the USSR damage itself by delaying the second front operation
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what happened to Britain's importance towards the end of WW2 ?
they became less important as the USSR and USA were now seen as the leaders
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when was the tehran conference ? who were the leaders present at this conference ?
november 1943, churchil, stalin and roosevelt
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when was the yalta conference and the potsdam conference ? who were the leaders at this conference ?
february 1945 churchil, stalin and roosevelt, july-august 1945 starlin, truman and attlee
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what were the key decisions made at tehran ?
that usa and britain to open a second front, russia to declare war on japan, what would happen to germany, international body set up
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what were the key decisions made at yalta ?
germany would split into four zones, germany was to pay 20 million dollars in reparations, united nations would be set up, nazi party would be banned+war crimals prosecuted
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what were the key decisions made at potsdam ?
USA, Russia, Britain and France would all get one part of germany and berlin was to be divided into four zones as well
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how were the big threes relationship affected at the tehran conference ?
all decisions made and discuss brought them closer together as they all agreed
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how was the big threes relationship affected at the yalta conference ?
everything was still dandy (sorry i had too !) apart from divisions were beginning over what to do with poland
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how was the big threes relationship affected at the potsdam conference ?
big disagreements took place, not agreeing over what to do with eastern europe at all !!
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how were truman and stalin feeling after the atomic bomb by America ?
Truman- worrying about russia getting annoyed, hoping he will intimidate russia Stalin- feels threatened, annoyed because he wasn't told about the atomic bomb being dropped
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what impact did the atomic bomb have on truman when he approached the potsdam conference ?
he felt more empowered as he suspected people were secretly threatened by him
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how did stalin respond to Truman dropping the atomic bomb ?
it made him more determined to keep his line of buffer states and he started an arms race
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how did the atomic bomb affect the cold war tensions ?
it dramatically increased the cold war tensions but made the USSR and USA more reluctant to go to war
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what are some factors which caused the big three to unravel ?
the split with capitalism and communism, change of leaders (the trust has gone), the arguments over poland, the atomic bomb sitch
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what did the USA's ambassador telegram say about Russia ?
that the soviet union is trying to eliminate america and their capitalist ways but without conflict
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what did the soviet union's ambassador telegram say about the USA ?
that the usa wanted to acc go to war to spread the idea of capitalism and that the usa wanted to take over the world
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what is meant by the iron curtain ?
it is not a physical curtain it is just a metaphor symbolising the split between eastern and western europe
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what is a doctrine ?
a belief which can only often lead to a policy
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what does containment mean ?
holding something in- stopping the USSR growing
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what is the Truman doctrine ?
the american policy that the USA would help any country or nation fight off communism
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why was trumans doctrine introduced ?
because the threat level of communist ideas spreading made truman act sharply, also the USA wanted to help any country under threat of communism
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what did the USA believe was their duty with the cold war ?
that they had to protect all democratic countries against the idea of communism
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what are points truman makes in his speech when he reveals his doctrine ?
he needs to keep peace internationally, he aims to keep freedom in the world
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what is trumans solution to try and stop soveit expansion ?
to give countries affected money to defend themsleves
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what does the Truman doctrine tell us about how the USA feels towards the soviet expansion ?
that they are terrified by soviet expansion and the spread of communism
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what are some consequences of war when the war has finished ?
extreme loss of population, lots of homeless people, famine and job crisises
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what is the main factor which spreads communism ?
poverty through out towns and cities
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what was the marshall plan ?
that the USA should offer money, equipment and goods to countries willing to work with the USA
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what is the relationship between the truman doctrine and marshall plan ?
the marshall plan put the truman doctrine into action because the Truman doctrine was just the belief not the actual plan
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what were two consequences of the Kennan telegram ? (U.S telegram)
the truman doctrine and the marshall plan
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why was stalin concerned about the marshall plan ?
it makes him feel threatened, he's worried about the spread of communism, the usa is extending their influence over europe
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what does stalin call the marshall plan ?
the dollar imperialism which means that he thinks truman is buying himself an empire
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how might stalin respond to marshall aid ?
bribe other countries with money and goods, use propaganda
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what was cominforn ?
an international organisation that represented communist parties across europe
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why did stalin introduce cominform ?
to ensure he had the loyalty of eastern european governments and to try and get countries to reject marshall aid
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when was cominform ?
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what was the aim of comecon ?
to encourage economic development and attempt to block off trade with western europe and america
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what did comecon ensure ?
that the benefits of economic recovery in eastern europe to remain in the soveits sphere of influence
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when was comecon ?
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why did america and Britain combine their two zones of germany ? and what did they do ?
to get the german industry going and introduced a new currency
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how did russia respond to american aid being sent to berlin ?
they began to search all road traffic to check what america was sending
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what happened on june 1st do to with america and france ?
they anounced a new country in western germany
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what was the berlin airlift ?
when britain and the usa air lifted aid into berlin after starlin blocked off berlin, 1,000's of supplies were being dropped in every day
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what is the berlin blockade ?
when starlin blocked aid and other people entering west berlin
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what was the main consequence of the berlin blockade ?
the berlin airlift
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what is an arms race ?
a competition between different nations to see who has the more developed military and technologies
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how did the arms race start between the usa and ussr ?
by america dropping the atomic bomb on the 6th august 1945
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when did the ussr develop their first atomic bomb ?
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what was starlins reaction to the usa dropping the atomic bomb ?
to start developing their own atomic bomb
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what did america develop after their atomic bomb ? when ?
a hydrogen bomb in november 1952
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when did the ussr develop their own hydrogen bomb ?
august of 1953
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what did america do on june 1957
launch their first ICBM (inter-continental ballistic missile)
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when did ussr launch their first ICBM ?
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what was an ICBM and what does it stand for ?
a missile which could be launched over 4,500 kilometers and it stood for inter-continental ballistic missile
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why was it important to keep up in the arms race ?
to prevent either side getting more powerful
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what was NATO ?
the north atlantic treaty organisation, it was a big alliance which agreed if any NATO country was attacked that all NATO countries would rush to their defence
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how did the ussr respond to NATO ?
by making the war saw pact
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what was the warsaw pact ?
it was the USSR's equivalent to NATO
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why would the warsaw pact and NATO damage us and ussr relations ?
because it would mirror NATO and vise versa and anger each side
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what was the impact of the berlin blockade for the future of germany ?
it couldnt develop effectively as half of germany was cut off, there wouldnt be a proper government, this would mean loss of coontrol
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when did hungary become a soviet union state ?
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what happened to hungary in 1945 to do with governments ?
free elections were held but communists didnt come to power as they didnt get enough seats
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how did the communists eventually come to power in hungary ?
after holding 'free elections' that they managed by intimidation, that meant that the communists were elected
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how did hungary feel about stalin ?
that he was nasty and wasnt helping them at all
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what happened to hungary's resources ?
they were mostly sent all off to russia which left the hungarians poor and deprived
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who was hungarys soviet dictator ?
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who took over the soviet empire after stalin died ?
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what did Krushchev do with hungary to de-stalinise the country ?
make governments less oppressing to help get rid of stalins harsh influences
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what is Matyas Rokosi responsible for ?
the deaths of over 2000 people across hungary
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who was Irme Nagy ?
he was captured in ww1 and escaped and fought in the russian revolution and later became part of the communist government and then was later kicked out again
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what were nagys reforms ?
hungary leaving the warsaw pact, holding free elections, there were 16 in total
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why did krushchev oppose the nagy reforms ?
because he didnt want any changes to be made because that wouldnt be the communist way
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how did krushchev respond to the nagy reforms ?
he came with lots of back up (armies and navies) to put countries back in their place
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who was rakosi ?
the hungarian leader
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why were the hungarians unhappy with rakosi as leader ?
because under his influence there was a lack of food and fuel
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how did the hungarians try to over throw rakosi ?
by holding protests
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who replace rakosi as leader of hungary ?
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what did nagy announce when he came into power ?
that hungary would leave the warsaw pact and hold free and fair elections
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who did nagy's announcement anger and how did they react ?
krushchev the leader of the ussr and he responded by sending in tanks into hungary and killed many hungarians
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who came into power as a result of krushchev invading hungary ?
kadar with a new pro-communist government
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how did america feel about hungarys invasion ?
they were sympathetic towards hungary but offered no military support
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what happened to nagy after kadar came to power ?
that he was tried and then executed in july 1958
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what were the reasons why America was right to not get involved in the Hungarian uprising ?
it would have angered russia possibly leading to a hot war, they didn't want to spend all that money financially, not fair on hungarians (causing another war in their country)
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what were the qualities of life in west berlin when the wall was put up in the cold war ?
total freedom, proper rights, richer life styles, more supplies
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what were the qualities of life in east berlin when the wall was put up in the cold war ?
very controlled environment, no democratic system, deprived on supplies, poorer life styles
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what was the brain drain ?
when lots of skilled workers left east berlin and migrated to west berlin because of the better conditions which left east berlin with not many skilled workers
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how did krushchev respond to the berlin brain drain ?
he declared that west berlin should join east berlin and that berlin should be demilitarised and that it should become a 'free' city
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how did the west respond to krushchevs ultimatum about berlin ?
they were outraged and thought it was another way to spread communism, this lead to talks to solve the issue
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when was the Geneva summit ? what was disgust there ?
may 1959, no solution to the problem was made, but krushchev said he would visit the usa to hold face to face talks
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when was the camp david summit ? what was disgust there ?
september 1959, solution to problem still not agreed on, krushchev decided to withdraw his six month ultimatum (which was were he said he wanted rid of british troops and us troops from berlin) they agreed to meet again and discuss the sitch further
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when was the paris summit ?what was disgust there ?
may 1960, it was a disaster as just before the meeting ussr shot down a spy us plane, krushchev walked out the meeting when eisenhower refused to apologise for piolet plane
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when was the vienna conference ? what was disgust there ?
june 1961, neither side wanted to back down over the us presence in berlin, krushchev once again put up a sixth month ultimatum for the us troops from berlin, kennedy starting preparing the us for war
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what was kennedys response after the vienna conference ?
he started preparing the us for war
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what was the berlin wall ?
a wall which blocked off west berlin from east berlin which was put their by the soviets
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what were the positives from the soviet unions perspective about the berlin wall ? negative ?
it stopped refugees leaving, the wall sent a message that communism will survive, that people could no longer escape communism;; khrushchev could no longer bully kennedy and had to accept western control, w.berlin became a symbol of freedom
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what were the positives and negatives of the berlin wall from the USA's perspective ?
khrushchev could no longer bully kennedy, the wall showed that the east had to lock people in, they clearly preferred communism, w.berlin became a symbol of freedom;; the wall stopped refugees from leaving, the wall sent a message that communism surv
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how did the berlin wall affect international relations ?
it reduced tension between both sides, it made both sides less likely to go to war but it showed lack of communication between the countries and it was a powerful symbol of a divided europe for almost 30 years
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how was cuba a source of tension in the cold war ?
it angered the usa towards the ussr even more and invaded americas personal space which resulted in america therefore building up with anger and tension
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when did castro become leader of cuba ? when did castro then sign an agreement with khrushchev ?
january 1959, februaury 1960
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when did the bay of pigs invasion take place ? what was it ?
august 1961, Cuban exiles launched what became a botched invasion at the Bay of Pigs on the south coast of Cuba.
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when and why did khrushchev offer weapons to cuba ?
in september 1961 to help protect cuba from capitalist america and anymore revolts
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summarise the cuban missile crisis
A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the “hottest” periods of the cold war.
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when the ussr agree to remove nuclear missles from cuba ?
28 october 1962
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why did the usa set up a blockade around cuba ?
to see what exactly the usa was transporting into cuba
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why did the usa get involved over cuban independence ?
didnt want to appear weak, intimidation, reclaim their power and influence, yo try and contain the spread of communism
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what is a dove in history ?
a person that believes in peaceful and diplomatic solutions to problems
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what is a hawk in history ?
a person that believes in invasion and war as a solution to resolve problelms
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what actually happened when the usa invaded cuba ?
planes that were painted to look like cuban planes were shot down and the planes missed most of the cuban air force targets, the first invasion on april 17th was a disaster after they came under heavy attack and the second invasion failed as well cos
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what were kennedys options on how to respond the the cuban missile crisis ?
do nothing, surgical air attacks, full invasion, diplomatic pressure, blockade
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what is a brief summary of 13 days ?
For thirteen days, October 16 – 28, 1962, the U.S. and Soviet Union faced each other down in a confrontation that would be the closest the world came to nuclear annihilation during the Cold War.
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what did kennedy do with the missile crisis ?
he put up a blockade after spy planes revealed the missiles which was seen as an act of war
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how was the cuban missile crisis resolved ?
by communication between kennedy and khrushchev both agreeing to move their missiles from each of their locations
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what were the immediate consequences of the cuban missile crisis ?
it lead to a reduction in khrushchevs power, a hotline was set up, a test ban treaty was agreed, detente was introduced
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what were the long term consequences of the cuban missile crisis ?
the arms race began. greater stability between the two super powers, france left nato, the rest of the world started to develop their own weapons
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what does detente mean ?
reduction in the tension between two superpowers
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why was Czechoslovakia a point of conflict ?
it was right next to free germany, it was surrounded by communist countries, shared borders with free countries
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why would have czechoslavakinains been upset ?
lack of freedom food and jobs, capitalism is so close and they want it so bad but they are communist, the leader was a poor leader, they have few rights
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what were the problems in Czechoslovakia near the end of khrushchevs rule ?
lack of freedom, lack of trust, poverty, couldn't speak out against the government
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who was Dubcek ?
Slovak politician and, briefly, leader of Czechoslovakia. He attempted to reform the communist government during the Prague Spring but he was forced to resign following the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
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what were Dubceks aims to do with czechoslovakia ?
trade with the west to be increased, criticism of the government to be allowed, everyone has greater freedom, control over industries to be reduced
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what are two consequences of when dubcek came leader of the communist party ?
he wanted to change solcialism so that it was with a human face, the soviets reaction (invasion)
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what happened at the end of the cold war in 1979 on christmas day ?
the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to try to prop up the communist government there, which was being attacked by Muslim Mujaheddin fighters.
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what were the reasons for soviet invasion ?
the ussr wanted to expand their influence, the soviets wanted to make sure the communist stayed in power, the afghan government asked for help
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Other cards in this set
what was the cold war ?
when the USA and the USSR fell out and became rivals by competing with each other
what is the main concept of capitalism ?