History Cold War

HideShow resource information
Tehran: Date, 4 agreements, 3 disagreements.
Tehran Iran 1943 + Jap Sec front 1944 May fr UN E. eu soviet influence - Sec front Poland Stalin didn't like Churchill
1 of 133
Yalta: Date, 5 agreements, 2 disagreements
Yalta Ukraine Feb 45 + 4 zones of Germany and Berlin Participate in UN after war Japan Germany to pay some reparations Prosecute nazis - How much reps Stalin wanted friendly polish government
2 of 133
Changes between Yalta + Potsdam
16 JULY 1945 US Test atom bomb successfully. Churchill replaced by Clement Atlee, Roosevelt replaced by Truman
3 of 133
Potsdam: Date, 3 agree, 2 disagree
Jul Aug 1945 Potsdam + Agreed again On zones Re establish democracy in Ger Ban nazi party (-) How much reps Treaty of Versailles all over again
4 of 133
Date Pol and Hungary fell to Communism
5 of 133
Romania fell to communism
6 of 133
Bulgaria's fall to communism
7 of 133
Czechoslovakia fall to communism
8 of 133
Truman's response to E. Europe falling to communism:
1947 - Truman doctrine: essentially Soviet containment
9 of 133
Marshal Plan - 1948
($13bn at time) Soviets forced Eastern Bloc countries/Soviet satellite states to reject the aid as it required economic cooperation
10 of 133
Greek Crisis: Date began, initial problem
1944, Two groups left after Nazi withdrawal. Royalists + Republican communists.
11 of 133
Churchill's actions in Greece
Sent in BEF into Greece 1945 to "restore order". Supported monarchists, brought back King.
12 of 133
USSR Response to Greek Crisis
1946 - USSR appealed to United Nations. UN Failed to act, so Greek communists tried to take power by force.
13 of 133
Result of Communist action in Greece
Situation developed to civil war. UK Couldn't afford the costs, so announced that they'd be withdrawing.
14 of 133
Truman response to Greek crisis
Stepped in. British troops stayed in Greece with US funding. 1950 - royalists still in control of Greece (but weak, in crisis)
15 of 133
Cominform: date, what was it, purpose, etc
1947 - response to Truman Doctrine. Communist cooperation.
16 of 133
Comecon: date, purpose
1949, response to Marshall plan of 1948. Comecon was meant to prevent countries in the Soviets’ sphere of influence from moving towards that of the Americans.
17 of 133
Berlin blockade/airlift start and end dates
1948 - 1949
18 of 133
Berlin blockade key events:
Stalin blockaded all routes by land rail and air into West Berlin from East Berlin. Allies airlifted supplies into West Berlin.
19 of 133
How many flights into Berlin per day?
20 of 133
How many tons of food into Berlin per day?
21 of 133
Bizonia Formation:
22 of 133
Trizonia (West Germany):
1948 -- became known as West Germany in 1949
23 of 133
West Germany Currency Reform Year:
24 of 133
3x Cause of Berlin Blockade:
3) Berlin was in the Soviet Zone, Stalin felt uneasy militarily. Didn't want Allies in his zone. 2) USSR wanted to secure itself from attack 3) Stalin accused West of interfering in his zone.
25 of 133
3 Consequences of berlin crisis:
NATIO 1949 CREATED | WARSAW PACT 1955 CREATED | Confirmed Division/'Iron Curtain' in Europe and Germany
26 of 133
Far East Domino Theory
China fell to Communism in 1949, Korea tried to follow in 1950, US helped South defend themselves against communist North
27 of 133
USA : 13.5 || USSR: 13.4
28 of 133
USA : 49.6 || USSR: 25.5
29 of 133
Arms race: Soviet Scientist Pay did what?
Was trebled.
30 of 133
31 of 133
Hungarian Uprising: year, leader at time of Stalin death and why Hungarians hated him
1956, Rakosi, led brutal regime secret police, arresting prisoners.
32 of 133
Rakosi's fate
'retired' for health reasons by the USSR
33 of 133
Rakosi's replacement
34 of 133
Statue of Stalin fallen down
23rd of October 1956
35 of 133
Why the USSR invaded
Rebellions against Gero
36 of 133
Date when Khrushchev's tanks began to attack
25th October
37 of 133
Popular reformist leader after Gero
Imre Nagy
38 of 133
Nagy reforms
Were more democratic, etc, close to removing communism altogether. LEAVE WARSAW PACT
39 of 133
Number of troops and tanks USSR sent in to shut Nagy down
200,000 and 6,000
40 of 133
Nagy fate & replacement
Execution in 1958, replaced by Kadar
41 of 133
How many Soviet troops killed in Hungarian uprising and how many rebels?
7000 Soviets, 20 000 Hungarians
42 of 133
How many refugees created?
200 000
43 of 133
International relations consequences (2)
Satellite states knew they couldn't break away, West saw Khrushchev as dangerous, and violent, etc.
44 of 133
Bizonia formed
45 of 133
Trizonia formed
46 of 133
Triennia becomes known as West Germany
47 of 133
Berlin Ultimatum of
48 of 133
Contents of Berlin Ultimatum 1958
Khrushchev told Western powers they had 6 months to agree to leave Berlin & make it a demilitarised city.
49 of 133
Withdrawal of ultimatum
May 1959
50 of 133
Withdrawal of ultimatum was followed by
meeting between US, FR, UK, USSR Foreign Ministers.
51 of 133
Eisenhower & Khrushchev meeting
At Camp David > global disarmament biggest issue.
52 of 133
Camp David meeting prelude to...
Paris Summit May 1960 - to solve Berlin issues and nukes
53 of 133
U2 Crisis
1 May 1960 - USSR left Paris summit. Eisenhower accepted responsibility but didn't apologise.
54 of 133
JFK Elected
November 1960
55 of 133
Berlin wall built
August 1961 - Iron Curtain began as metaphor now real
56 of 133
Cause of Berlin Wall x 3
1) Western Spies - what government said 2) Thought could intimidate JFK 3) Brain drain, West Germany seemed more attractive
57 of 133
How many left East Germany every month?
20 000
58 of 133
Length of Berlin Wall (specifically, border between W. and E. Berlin)
59 of 133
Consequences of Berlin Wall x4
1) symbol of division 2) West Germans lost some confidence in USA for not going to war 3) USSR felt they had beaten JFK 4) East German economic situation improved as people couldn't leave
60 of 133
Year of Cuban Missile Crisis
61 of 133
Causes x5
5) Missiles in Cuba!!! 1) Space Race - sputnik seen as military threat 2) Arms Race: H Bombs = 15m tons of TNT 3) Poor relations between US and Cuba due to Castro 4) Bay of pigs
62 of 133
Date of Bay of Pigs
63 of 133
Order of events:
US Bomb cuban airforce | Second wave of bombing called off, Cuban air force could fight next day | La Brigada landed, met with 20,000 Castro men | Fighting ended within a day, 100 killed the rest imprisoned.
64 of 133
Cost of Bay of Pigs operation:
45 million USD
65 of 133
Consequences of Bay of pigs x 3
Castro pushed to USSR | Kennedy humiliated | USA seen as imperialistic etc seen as trying to spread Capitalism
66 of 133
Events of Cuban Missile Crisis:
JFK sets up blockade & calls to remove missiles in Cuba. K sends letter - will not observe blockade. Missile ships approach blockade and turn around suddenly. U2 Footage shows missiles still being built.
67 of 133
1st Letter Cuban Missile Crisis
Will not observe blockade. "No nuclear weapons"
68 of 133
2nd Letter Cuban Missile Crisis
Admits missiles. If US remove blockade and don't attack Cuba, may be cooperation in disarmament.
69 of 133
3rd Letter
K demands Turkey missiles removed if he wants Cuban missiles gone. U2 plane shot down over Cuba, pilot killed.
70 of 133
JFK response to missile crisis
JFK ignores second letter, accepts terms of first. Demands USSR to withdraw or attack will follow. K dismantles arms, and USA dismantle Turkey arms secretly.
71 of 133
Consequences of Cuban Missile Crisis
K had to resign because he looked weak even though he made US withdraw weapons (sacked in 1964), JFK emerged as hero, telephone hotline, partial test ban signed. SALT talks.
72 of 133
Brezhnev came to power
73 of 133
Prague Spring date
74 of 133
Leader of Czechoslovakia
75 of 133
Who replaced him
76 of 133
Dubcek reforms:
Multiparty, freedom of speech, more democracy, democratic socialism
77 of 133
USSR worried of...
domino effect
78 of 133
Brezhnev response to proposed reforms
sent troops to border for 'training exercises'
79 of 133
Dubcek threatened into remaining in Warsaw Pact and signed...
Bratislava declaration - stating faith in communism
80 of 133
Date of USSR invasion
1968. Thousands of Soviet and Warsaw pact troops entered Czechoslovakia.
81 of 133
Resistance to USSR invasion
No armed response from government. Less than 100 people killed. But some rebels fought back and throw petrol bombs, changed street names, etc.
82 of 133
Fate of Dubček
83 of 133
Fate of Czechoslovakia
Only hardline communists were head of govt.
84 of 133
Detente began in
85 of 133
Reasons for detente (Paul Pott Cruelly Makes Lovely Naked Video)
Protection - Brezhnev Doctrine | China, both sides worried other would ally with China | Money, economic downturn | Linkage mutual benefits | Nuclear War and MAD | Vietnam - US wanted excuse to leave
86 of 133
Money, economic cooperation between two could help both sides. Vietnam, Brezhnev mediated end of Vietnam war.
87 of 133
SALT I talks agreements and year
1972, Limited ICBM and ABM. Agreed not to test ICBM. Agreed could check each other's sites using satellites.
88 of 133
President Ford Elected
89 of 133
Date of Helsinki Accords
90 of 133
Respect human rights, co-operate economically scientifically politically, etc. Security, recognised European boundaries, and USSR accepted existence of West Germany.
91 of 133
Benefits of Helsinki accords:
International relations all time high, economy would improve, less spending on weapons, security.
92 of 133
Bad sides:
Brezhnev didn't like human rights bit.
93 of 133
Jimmy Carter elected
94 of 133
SALT II brief synopsis
Failed in 1979 despite agreements, due to Afghan. Lasted until 1985. Never ratified.
95 of 133
SALT II agreements:
Limited nuke delivery vehicles, Limit 1320 MIRVs, Ban on new ICBM
96 of 133
Soviet Invasion of Afghan year
97 of 133
Officially because People's Democratic Party of Afghan was under attack.
98 of 133
PDPA caused creation of
99 of 133
Leader of PDPA, relations with US
Amin, wanted to improve US relations.
100 of 133
Date of Invasion
25 Dec 1979
101 of 133
Fate of Amin
Shot, new leader put in, more soviet troops sent in.
102 of 133
Other causes of Afghan x 4
Control of ME Oil and Trade, Prevent US-Afghan relations, Control of mujahideen, Rivalry with US in trade.
103 of 133
Consequences x 4 of Afghan Invasion
1) SALT 2 fell apart, wasn't ratified 2) Carter Doctrine introduced, supported Mujahideen 3) Carter looked weak, lost to Reagan in 1981 4) Newly made trade agreements stopped. America boycotted 1980 Olympics, as did many others.
104 of 133
One of Reagan's first actions in 1981
Zero Options proposal: US would remove European Missiles if USSR did same. Brezhnev rejected offer.
105 of 133
Zero options consequences:
gave USA excuse to deploy more weapons e.g. Cruise Missiles, in Europe
106 of 133
Reagan's SDI Programme
Strategic Defence Initiative, Star Wars, started in 1984
107 of 133
SDI Involved
Satellites that could intercept, control, and divert missiles to stop them from reaching US and turn them back on USSR.
108 of 133
Reagan increased defence spending to:
1 trillion dollars
109 of 133
3 x things in new defence budget:
100 MX missiles, 100 B-1 supersonic bombers, 6 Trident Submarines
110 of 133
Evil Empire speech year
111 of 133
Andropov to power
112 of 133
Chernenko to power
1984, died in 1985
113 of 133
Successor of Chernenko
114 of 133
Issues faced by Gorby x 3
1) overspending arms race poor economy, living, etc 2) locked in war in afghan unwindable 3) no new forward thinking since Stalin
115 of 133
Gorby main ideas
To modernise communism, worried of declining standards of USSR life. He was very popular for wanting to modernise.
116 of 133
Restructuring of economy, allowing competition through private industry, ending of state control of economy.
117 of 133
Glasnost/Human Rights
political prisoners freed, more openness/transparency, freedom of speech to criticise the government, etc.
118 of 133
End of Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviets to stop interfering in WP countries, and to stop holding onto the WP, as too expensive. Actively encouraged them to become more modern too.
119 of 133
Soviets in Afghan
Withdrew in 1988.
120 of 133
INF Treaty date and summary
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty 1987 - eliminated nuclear and ground launched ballistic missiles. 3 000 weapons destroyed. Improved monitoring capabilities of each other.
121 of 133
CFE Treaty
1989/90 Conventional Armed Forces in Eur Treaty. Even more arms reductions. Caused relations to be great. USSR and USA intervened in Hussain invasion of Kuwait.
122 of 133
1990/91 Gorbachev and Bush discuss limitations of arms and agree massive reduction in arms.
123 of 133
Relationship with Reagans
Friendly, etc. Could be friends, and so on.
124 of 133
Seen as modern visionary loved by people he visited them etc
125 of 133
Dissolution of Soviet Empire
Ended in 1991
126 of 133
Sinatra doctrine
USSR troops no longer maintain control in satellite states. Govts would have to listen to people with democracy.
127 of 133
Poland communist government fell in
1989 - Solidarity elected
128 of 133
Hungary, Czech, Bulgaria, Romania fell
129 of 133
East Germany + West Germany Unite in
130 of 133
1988 E. Germany
Corby states that Soviet troops will not stop demonstrations against govt (Sinatra)
131 of 133
Berlin wall comes down, people flee, etc.
132 of 133
USSR Itself Finally Dissolved
26 December 1991
133 of 133

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Yalta Ukraine Feb 45 + 4 zones of Germany and Berlin Participate in UN after war Japan Germany to pay some reparations Prosecute nazis - How much reps Stalin wanted friendly polish government


Yalta: Date, 5 agreements, 2 disagreements

Card 3


16 JULY 1945 US Test atom bomb successfully. Churchill replaced by Clement Atlee, Roosevelt replaced by Truman


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Jul Aug 1945 Potsdam + Agreed again On zones Re establish democracy in Ger Ban nazi party (-) How much reps Treaty of Versailles all over again


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The Cold War resources »