History Cold War

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Tehran: Date, 4 agreements, 3 disagreements.
Tehran Iran 1943 + *** Sec front 1944 May fr UN E. eu soviet influence - Sec front Poland Stalin didn't like Churchill
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Yalta: Date, 5 agreements, 2 disagreements
Yalta Ukraine Feb 45 + 4 zones of Germany and Berlin Participate in UN after war Japan Germany to pay some reparations Prosecute nazis - How much reps Stalin wanted friendly polish government
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Changes between Yalta + Potsdam
16 JULY 1945 US Test atom bomb successfully. Churchill replaced by Clement Atlee, Roosevelt replaced by Truman
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Potsdam: Date, 3 agree, 2 disagree
Jul Aug 1945 Potsdam + Agreed again On zones Re establish democracy in Ger Ban nazi party (-) How much reps Treaty of Versailles all over again
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Date Pol and Hungary fell to Communism
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Romania fell to communism
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Bulgaria's fall to communism
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Czechoslovakia fall to communism
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Truman's response to E. Europe falling to communism:
1947 - Truman doctrine: essentially Soviet containment
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Marshal Plan - 1948
($13bn at time) Soviets forced Eastern Bloc countries/Soviet satellite states to reject the aid as it required economic cooperation
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Greek Crisis: Date began, initial problem
1944, Two groups left after Nazi withdrawal. Royalists + Republican communists.
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Churchill's actions in Greece
Sent in BEF into Greece 1945 to "restore order". Supported monarchists, brought back King.
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USSR Response to Greek Crisis
1946 - USSR appealed to United Nations. UN Failed to act, so Greek communists tried to take power by force.
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Result of Communist action in Greece
Situation developed to civil war. UK Couldn't afford the costs, so announced that they'd be withdrawing.
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Truman response to Greek crisis
Stepped in. British troops stayed in Greece with US funding. 1950 - royalists still in control of Greece (but weak, in crisis)
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Cominform: date, what was it, purpose, etc
1947 - response to Truman Doctrine. Communist cooperation.
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Comecon: date, purpose
1949, response to Marshall plan of 1948. Comecon was meant to prevent countries in the Soviets’ sphere of influence from moving towards that of the Americans.
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Berlin blockade/airlift start and end dates
1948 - 1949
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Berlin blockade key events:
Stalin blockaded all routes by land rail and air into West Berlin from East Berlin. Allies airlifted supplies into West Berlin.
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How many flights into Berlin per day?
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How many tons of food into Berlin per day?
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Bizonia Formation:
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Trizonia (West Germany):
1948 -- became known as West Germany in 1949
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West Germany Currency Reform Year:
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3x Cause of Berlin Blockade:
3) Berlin was in the Soviet Zone, Stalin felt uneasy militarily. Didn't want Allies in his zone. 2) USSR wanted to secure itself from attack 3) Stalin accused West of interfering in his zone.
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3 Consequences of berlin crisis:
NATIO 1949 CREATED | WARSAW PACT 1955 CREATED | Confirmed Division/'Iron Curtain' in Europe and Germany
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Far East Domino Theory
China fell to Communism in 1949, Korea tried to follow in 1950, US helped South defend themselves against communist North
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USA : 13.5 || USSR: 13.4
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USA : 49.6 || USSR: 25.5
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Arms race: Soviet Scientist Pay did what?
Was trebled.
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Hungarian Uprising: year, leader at time of Stalin death and why Hungarians hated him
1956, Rakosi, led brutal regime secret police, arresting prisoners.
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Rakosi's fate
'retired' for health reasons by the USSR
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Rakosi's replacement
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Statue of Stalin fallen down
23rd of October 1956
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Why the USSR invaded
Rebellions against Gero
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Date when Khrushchev's tanks began to attack
25th October
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Popular reformist leader after Gero
Imre Nagy
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Nagy reforms
Were more democratic, etc, close to removing communism altogether. LEAVE WARSAW PACT
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Number of troops and tanks USSR sent in to shut Nagy down
200,000 and 6,000
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Nagy fate & replacement
Execution in 1958, replaced by Kadar
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How many Soviet troops killed in Hungarian uprising and how many rebels?
7000 Soviets, 20 000 Hungarians
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How many refugees created?
200 000
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International relations consequences (2)
Satellite states knew they couldn't break away, West saw Khrushchev as dangerous, and violent, etc.
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Bizonia formed
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Trizonia formed
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Triennia becomes known as West Germany
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Berlin Ultimatum of
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Contents of Berlin Ultimatum 1958
Khrushchev told Western powers they had 6 months to agree to leave Berlin & make it a demilitarised city.
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Withdrawal of ultimatum
May 1959
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Withdrawal of ultimatum was followed by
meeting between US, FR, UK, USSR Foreign Ministers.
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Eisenhower & Khrushchev meeting
At Camp David > global disarmament biggest issue.
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Camp David meeting prelude to...
Paris Summit May 1960 - to solve Berlin issues and nukes
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U2 Crisis
1 May 1960 - USSR left Paris summit. Eisenhower accepted responsibility but didn't apologise.
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JFK Elected
November 1960
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Berlin wall built
August 1961 - Iron Curtain began as metaphor now real
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Cause of Berlin Wall x 3
1) Western Spies - what government said 2) Thought could intimidate JFK 3) Brain drain, West Germany seemed more attractive
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How many left East Germany every month?
20 000
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Length of Berlin Wall (specifically, border between W. and E. Berlin)
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Consequences of Berlin Wall x4
1) symbol of division 2) West Germans lost some confidence in USA for not going to war 3) USSR felt they had beaten JFK 4) East German economic situation improved as people couldn't leave
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Year of Cuban Missile Crisis
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Causes x5
5) Missiles in Cuba!!! 1) Space Race - sputnik seen as military threat 2) Arms Race: H Bombs = 15m tons of TNT 3) Poor relations between US and Cuba due to Castro 4) Bay of pigs
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Date of Bay of Pigs
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Order of events:
US Bomb cuban airforce | Second wave of bombing called off, Cuban air force could fight next day | La Brigada landed, met with 20,000 Castro men | Fighting ended within a day, 100 killed the rest imprisoned.
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Cost of Bay of Pigs operation:
45 million USD
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Consequences of Bay of pigs x 3
Castro pushed to USSR | Kennedy humiliated | USA seen as imperialistic etc seen as trying to spread Capitalism
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Events of Cuban Missile Crisis:
JFK sets up blockade & calls to remove missiles in Cuba. K sends letter - will not observe blockade. Missile ships approach blockade and turn around suddenly. U2 Footage shows missiles still being built.
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1st Letter Cuban Missile Crisis
Will not observe blockade. "No nuclear weapons"
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2nd Letter Cuban Missile Crisis
Admits missiles. If US remove blockade and don't attack Cuba, may be cooperation in disarmament.
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3rd Letter
K demands Turkey missiles removed if he wants Cuban missiles gone. U2 plane shot down over Cuba, pilot killed.
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JFK response to missile crisis
JFK ignores second letter, accepts terms of first. Demands USSR to withdraw or attack will follow. K dismantles arms, and USA dismantle Turkey arms secretly.
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Consequences of Cuban Missile Crisis
K had to resign because he looked weak even though he made US withdraw weapons (sacked in 1964), JFK emerged as hero, telephone hotline, partial test ban signed. SALT talks.
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Brezhnev came to power
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Prague Spring date
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Leader of Czechoslovakia
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Who replaced him
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Dubcek reforms:
Multiparty, freedom of speech, more democracy, democratic socialism
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USSR worried of...
domino effect
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Brezhnev response to proposed reforms
sent troops to border for 'training exercises'
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Dubcek threatened into remaining in Warsaw Pact and signed...
Bratislava declaration - stating faith in communism
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Date of USSR invasion
1968. Thousands of Soviet and Warsaw pact troops entered Czechoslovakia.
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Resistance to USSR invasion
No armed response from government. Less than 100 people killed. But some rebels fought back and throw petrol bombs, changed street names, etc.
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Fate of Dubček
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Fate of Czechoslovakia
Only hardline communists were head of govt.
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Detente began in
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Reasons for detente (Paul Pott Cruelly Makes Lovely Naked Video)
Protection - Brezhnev Doctrine | China, both sides worried other would ally with China | Money, economic downturn | Linkage mutual benefits | Nuclear War and MAD | Vietnam - US wanted excuse to leave
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Money, economic cooperation between two could help both sides. Vietnam, Brezhnev mediated end of Vietnam war.
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SALT I talks agreements and year
1972, Limited ICBM and ABM. Agreed not to test ICBM. Agreed could check each other's sites using satellites.
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President Ford Elected
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Date of Helsinki Accords
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Respect human rights, co-operate economically scientifically politically, etc. Security, recognised European boundaries, and USSR accepted existence of West Germany.
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Benefits of Helsinki accords:
International relations all time high, economy would improve, less spending on weapons, security.
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Bad sides:
Brezhnev didn't like human rights bit.
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Jimmy Carter elected
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SALT II brief synopsis
Failed in 1979 despite agreements, due to Afghan. Lasted until 1985. Never ratified.
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SALT II agreements:
Limited nuke delivery vehicles, Limit 1320 MIRVs, Ban on new ICBM
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Soviet Invasion of Afghan year
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Officially because People's Democratic Party of Afghan was under attack.
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PDPA caused creation of
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Leader of PDPA, relations with US
Amin, wanted to improve US relations.
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Date of Invasion
25 Dec 1979
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Fate of Amin
Shot, new leader put in, more soviet troops sent in.
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Other causes of Afghan x 4
Control of ME Oil and Trade, Prevent US-Afghan relations, Control of mujahideen, Rivalry with US in trade.
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Consequences x 4 of Afghan Invasion
1) SALT 2 fell apart, wasn't ratified 2) Carter Doctrine introduced, supported Mujahideen 3) Carter looked weak, lost to Reagan in 1981 4) Newly made trade agreements stopped. America boycotted 1980 Olympics, as did many others.
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One of Reagan's first actions in 1981
Zero Options proposal: US would remove European Missiles if USSR did same. Brezhnev rejected offer.
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Zero options consequences:
gave USA excuse to deploy more weapons e.g. Cruise Missiles, in Europe
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Reagan's SDI Programme
Strategic Defence Initiative, Star Wars, started in 1984
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SDI Involved
Satellites that could intercept, control, and divert missiles to stop them from reaching US and turn them back on USSR.
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Reagan increased defence spending to:
1 trillion dollars
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3 x things in new defence budget:
100 MX missiles, 100 B-1 supersonic bombers, 6 Trident Submarines
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Evil Empire speech year
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Andropov to power
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Chernenko to power
1984, died in 1985
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Successor of Chernenko
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Issues faced by Gorby x 3
1) overspending arms race poor economy, living, etc 2) locked in war in afghan unwindable 3) no new forward thinking since Stalin
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Gorby main ideas
To modernise communism, worried of declining standards of USSR life. He was very popular for wanting to modernise.
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Restructuring of economy, allowing competition through private industry, ending of state control of economy.
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Glasnost/Human Rights
political prisoners freed, more openness/transparency, freedom of speech to criticise the government, etc.
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End of Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviets to stop interfering in WP countries, and to stop holding onto the WP, as too expensive. Actively encouraged them to become more modern too.
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Soviets in Afghan
Withdrew in 1988.
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INF Treaty date and summary
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty 1987 - eliminated nuclear and ground launched ballistic missiles. 3 000 weapons destroyed. Improved monitoring capabilities of each other.
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CFE Treaty
1989/90 Conventional Armed Forces in Eur Treaty. Even more arms reductions. Caused relations to be great. USSR and USA intervened in Hussain invasion of Kuwait.
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1990/91 Gorbachev and Bush discuss limitations of arms and agree massive reduction in arms.
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Relationship with Reagans
Friendly, etc. Could be friends, and so on.
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Seen as modern visionary loved by people he visited them etc
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Dissolution of Soviet Empire
Ended in 1991
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Sinatra doctrine
USSR troops no longer maintain control in satellite states. Govts would have to listen to people with democracy.
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Poland communist government fell in
1989 - Solidarity elected
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Hungary, Czech, Bulgaria, Romania fell
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East Germany + West Germany Unite in
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1988 E. Germany
Corby states that Soviet troops will not stop demonstrations against govt (Sinatra)
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Berlin wall comes down, people flee, etc.
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USSR Itself Finally Dissolved
26 December 1991
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Yalta Ukraine Feb 45 + 4 zones of Germany and Berlin Participate in UN after war Japan Germany to pay some reparations Prosecute nazis - How much reps Stalin wanted friendly polish government


Yalta: Date, 5 agreements, 2 disagreements

Card 3


16 JULY 1945 US Test atom bomb successfully. Churchill replaced by Clement Atlee, Roosevelt replaced by Truman


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Card 4


Jul Aug 1945 Potsdam + Agreed again On zones Re establish democracy in Ger Ban nazi party (-) How much reps Treaty of Versailles all over again


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