History- Britain

Women in early 20th century
didn't have the right to vote, rightful place was in the home, too emotional to be involved in business or politics. 1911 10% of married women worked
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Change of attitiudes to women
could vote in local elections, girls schools, some went to uni and became doctors
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Early suffragists
1897- NUWSS formed by Millicent Fawcett
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What did the suffragists believe in?
peaceful, wanted to legally gain the vote, encouraged men to help, believed men would listen if women were sensible and peaceful. Trained women for public speaking, produced pamphlets and newspapers. Supported candidates who were in favour
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Why were the suffragettes formed?
male members of NUWSS stood against opponents, campaign publicised the cause but women were angry about how long it was taking
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When were the suffragettes formed?
1903- WSPU set up by Emmeline Pankhurst and Sylvia and Christabel. Believed in deeds not words
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How did the suffragettes get their nickname?
the daily mail
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1907
Some WSPU members formed the WFL- wanted militant campaigns without breaking the law
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Campbell Bannerman
was in favour of womens suffrage. Told women to keep on pestering
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Suffragette tactics
demonstrations, minor acts of public disorder
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1908
parliament considered giving vote to women.
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1911
voted to allow women to vote but never passed the commons
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WSPU response
organised a peaceful pilgrimage from Carlisle to London
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Militant WSPU tactics
1912- stone throwing in London. 1st March broke windows. 219 arrested. Dug up gold and cricket pitches. Set alight post boxes, assaulted politicians and attacked home.
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The Derby 1913
Emily Davison jumped in front of the kings horse. Died in hospital 4 days later. Suffragettes made her a martyr for dying for the cause
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Opposition to the suffragettes
The mens league for opposing womens suffrage. Womens national anti-suffrage league
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hUNGER STRIKES
REFUSED to eat in prison. this would cause the government difficulties Many suffragettes were respectable and from influential families. Government ordered prisons to force feed them through a tube
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Response to hunger strike
1913- temporary discharge for ill health act- enabled hunger strikers to be temporarily released. Became known as the cat and mouse act
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1914- war and suffragettes
campaigned for womens right to serve in agriculture, factories, transport and as nurses on the front
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1918-1928
1918- all women over 30 could vote. 1928- all men and women aged over 21 could vote
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1906
Liberal party won a landslide victory
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Early 20th century Britain
high quality life. Over a million had an aincome of at least £750. No welfare state. 43% of York under the poverty line which was anything below £1 a week. 1902 Booth discovered 1/3 londonders below poverty line
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The workhouse
places to help the needy. Food and clothing basic. families split up. work was long and tedious
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1899- Boer War
40% unfit for service
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Liberals and children
1880- school compulsory. 1906- free school meals act. 1914- 150,000 receiving but only 1/2 of authorities did it. 1907- school medical service became free in 1912. 1908- childrens charter. 1908- children protected persons. Borstals for bad kids.
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How did Lloyd George pay for reforms?
1909- peoples budget raised taxes
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Liberals and old people
pensions for over 70s. ranged from 5p-25p a week or 37.5p if married. in 1st year 650,000 by 1914- 1 million
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Liberals and workers
1909- labour exhanges. by 1914 400 and 1 million registered workers. 1911- national insurance, sick pay. worker paid 4d a week, government 2 and worker 2. worker could receive 10 shillings a week for 26 weeks. 30 shillings on birth of child
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The British Expeditionary force
100,000 men dispatched. by december 2014 half were dead
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Trench warfare
no man's land, machine guns that could fire 600 rounds a minute, gas such as mustard gas, creeping barrage, artillery followed by troops, tanks used first in the battle of the somme
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The Battle of The Somme 1916
began with a five day bombardment of germans along a 30km front. on the 1st day germans killed 20,000 british. by november 420,000 british soldiers died and the allies had advanced 5 miles.
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The end of the war- 1918
USA joined in April 1917. Ludendorff german commander decided to do an all-out attack on the western front. Germans advanced far and were viewed as close to victory. However british and americans fought bacl and won at Flanders.
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Armistice and retreat
oct- germans retreated. 11 november- armistice signed
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DORA
passed in august 1914. introduced censorship
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DORA- censorship and propaganda
heroic stories of soldiers were printed. No photos of dead soldiers were to be printed.Propaganda gave the impression that the germans were evil. germans were nicknamed huns( barbaric 15th centurians)
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Recruitment and conscription
Kitchener war minister planned to rely on volunteers. sept 1914- 175,000 volunteers and then 125,000 a month. White feathers were given to those who didn't. January 1916- all single men aged 18-41 had to go, extended to married men at the end of 1916
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Conscientious objectors
people who refused to fight for religious or personal reasons.
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Rationing
shortage of food meant food had to be restricted. food was grown in public parks and by the womens land army. introduced in 1918. food had to be obtained with a rations card. every person was allowed 425g of meat, 140g of bacon and 110g of butter
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Women's role during the war
women went to work in place of the men. worked in munitions factories- 200,000 produced in 1914 to nearly a million in 1918. 23,000 served as nurses. 800,000 in engineering by end of war
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Women at the end of the war
1918- got vote if over 30. 1919- women allowed to do jury service, become lawyers and join civil service. women were forced out of their new found jobs
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The changing role of women after the war- political progress
1919- nancy astor became the first female MP. 1929- Margaret Bondfield first female member of government
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Social Progress
young women no longer needed chaperones. Flappers came about. These were women who wore short skirts, lots of make up and drank and smoked. responsible for the charleston dance
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Employment Opportunities
1930s- women wages half as men. 1919- sex disqualification act meant that women could no longer be banned from a job because of their sex. 1925- civil service allowed women
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Problems in the coal industry
7 hour day, national minimum wage.Foreign competition. the industry began to lose 5 million a month from 1920. government handed industry to private owners. they cut pay and increased hours
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The trade-union movement
the triple alliance was formed in 1913. agreed to strike if the other did. revived in feb 1919. Had 8 million members by 1920
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Black Friday 15th April 1921
coal, transport agreed to strike. 2 unions pulled out at the last minute and it was left for the miners to do alone. the alliance became the cripple alliance. miners went back to work in July and had to accept pay cuts and 30 minute longer days
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Red Friday 31st July 1925
mine owners announced pay cuts and longer days. Miner leade said not a penny of the pay. not a minute of the day. TUCarranged a strike for the 30th. government were forced to do something. gave mine owners enough money to support nine months
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The samuel commission
decided to do nothing to the mines and ignore them
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Change of attitiudes to women

Back

could vote in local elections, girls schools, some went to uni and became doctors

Card 3

Front

Early suffragists

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did the suffragists believe in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why were the suffragettes formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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