History - American West

  • Created by: hannah.o
  • Created on: 14-01-18 18:26
How are Plains Indians' tribes divided?
Most tribes were divided into bands, each with a chief and a council.
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What are some examples of Plains Indians tribes?
The Sioux, Cheyenne and Blackfoot.
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What is a band?
Most people in a band were related to each other and were led by chiefs and had councils of advisers. Council members agreed everything the band did. the survival and protection of the band as a whole was more important than the individuals within.
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What is a chief?
Chiefs were chosen because of their wisdom and skills as warriors/hunters. Chiefs and councils devided where their bands would go and what should happen to those who broke with customs and traditions - they did not have to be obeyed.
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What is a tribe?
Bands in the same tribe supported each other during crises. Tribal meetings of all the bands were held each year to arrange marriages, trade horses and discuss issues. Chiefs and elders formed the tribal councils. Some tribes were part of nations.
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What are warrior societies?
The best warriors from each band formed its warrior society. These members supervised hunting and protected their bands from attack. All short raids and wars were led by the warrior society; band's council would consult them before making decisions.
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What was leadership like in Plains Indian society?
No decision could be made until everyone at the council had agreed to it. The rest of the tribe or band didn't have to obey the decision. Chiefs and elders were often guided by the spirit world through visions?
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What were the consequences of their leadership?
The US government thought that if a chief signed a treaty, all his tribes should obey the terms, but this was not how Indians' society worked. eg, Red Cloud signed a treaty in 1868, but many Lakota Sioux bands followed Sitting Bull, who opposed it.
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What were the roles in a band?
A band saw every member as being equally important to its survival.
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What did men and women do?
Men (braves) hunted and fought enemies. Women (squaws) made clothing, fed the family and looked after their tipi.
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Who looked after the children?
Everyone looked after children, who were taught the skills of their parents.
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Who were elders?
Elders were respected for their wisdom but were left behind to die if their weakness threatened the survival of a band.
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What were the consequences of these band roles?
Children were taught by different band members, so when the USgov broke their society up into families, or when children were moved to schools far away from their tribe, it meant the children did not learn all the skills, impacting their ways of life
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Give a brief summary of survival on the Plains
The Plains was a very tough environment: dry, with very hot summers and cold winters. Plains Indians depended on each other, land and animals to survive. They relied on horses to hunt, and the buffalo was considered the most important animal to hunt.
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Why were buffalo and horses important?
They were needed for survival. Catching buffalo was quicker and easier on horseback. Every part of a buffalo was used for food, equipment, and clothing. Wealth and status were measured by how many horses an Indian or tribe had.
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Horses were used in war. Horses carried the Indians and their belongings on their journey to find buffalo. Some were nomads - they ate wild fruits and plants but did not settle long enough to grow crops.
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What was the nomadic lifestyle?
The Plains Indians followed the buffalo migrations through the summer and autumn.
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How did they carry out this lifestyle?
They had tipis, made of wooden poles and covered in buffalo hide: their coned shape protected them against strong winds, flaps provided ventilation in the summer heat, and they could be taken down and packed away in minutes.
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What did Plains Indians do in winter?
The bands moved to sheltered valleys where they lived in wooden lodges, insulated with thick layers of soil.
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What were the consequences of their nomadic lifestyle?
Nomadic tribes found it very difficult to live permanently on reservations because they were used to travelling and hunting freely.
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How did bands adapt for survival?
Bands were designed for survival on the Plains. They changed size depending on the amount of food available. WHen food became scarce, bands would split up and spread out so that there was more chance of everyone eating.
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What did Plains Indians believe about nature?
Everything in nature had a spirit and these spirits could help humans or harm them. Humans were a part of nature and should work with the spirits, rather than try to control nature. They could contact the spirit world through visions & ritual dances.
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What did Plains Indians believe about land?
Tribes had sacred areas. For the Lakota SIoux, the Black Hills, Paha Sapa, were sacred because this was where the Lakota believed their tribes originally came from.
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What did Plains Indians believe about property?
Indian families sometimes had their own garden plots, but generally no one owned land. For Plains Indians, land was not any one's property, and not something that one person could buy and keep just for him or herself.
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What were the consequences of these beliefs about land and property?
White settlers had very different views about property from Plains Indians, which led to tension and conflict.
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What were Plains Indians' attitudes to war?
Plains Indian society was full of conflict, but Indians had developed ways to avoid too much killing because young men were essential to each tribe's survival.
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The highest repect and prestige waas given to warriors, usually young men, for counting coup: landing a blow on an enemy and getting away without being injured. Indian war parties would also run away if a fight turned against them.
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What were the consequences of their attitudes to war?
The US Army found it difficult to fight an enemy that ran away rather than fought to the last man. They had to develop new techniques against Indian warfare.
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What was a key event in 1830?
Indian Removal Act forces 46,000 Indians in eastern states to move west of the Mississippi River. Whites then though this land was worthless - the 'Great American Desert'.
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What was a key event in 1834?
Indian Trade and Intercourse Act sets out the frontier between the USA and Indian territory. Forts guarded the frontier to stop whites crossing over to settle in Indian Territory.
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What was a key event in 1848?
US victory in the Mexican-American war. The situation changed when the USA gained new territories in the West. Instead of being on the western edge, Indian territory was now stuck in the middle of the USA.
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What was a key event in 1851?
Indian Appropraitions Act: money allovated for setting up Indian reservations in modern day Oklahoma.
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How did the government support for western expansion?
The government needed US citizens to go and live in its new territories in the West. This meant that people needed to be able to travel across Indian lands. The US Army forced Indians to move away from trails in case they attacked travellers.
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What were the consequences of this?
US policy started to change. The 'permanent' Indian frontier still marked the boundary with Indian lands, but now whites were allowed to cross the frontier.
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What was the aim of the Indian Appropriation Act, 1851?
The act paid for moving Indians in Indian Territory onto reservations. As well as keeping whites and Indians apart, the government hoped that reservations would help Indians learn to farm and live like white Americans. They could control Indians.
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What were the pull factors for moving west?
Freedom and independence, fertile land, space, Oregon Trail, and gold.
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What were the push factors for moving west?
Collapse of wheat prices, overpopulation, persecution, and unemployment.
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(Moving west) What happened in 1825?
Explorer Jedediah Smith shares discovery of the South Pass through the Rocky Mountains.
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(Moving west) What happened in 1836?
The first migrants to travel the Oregon Trail by wagon reach their destination.
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(Moving west) What happened in 1837?
Financial crisis causes economic depression: people lose savings, wages are cut, and unemployment increases. Wheat prices fall; many farmers face ruin.
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(Moving west) What happened in 1841?
Government-funded expedition maps the Oregon Trail and publishes guide book for migrants.
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(Moving west) What happened in 1846?
Governor of Illinois tells Mormons to leave the state.
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(Moving west) What happened in 1848?
Gold is discovered in California.
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(Moving west) What happened in 1858-59?
Gold is discovered in the Rocky Mountains.
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(Moving west) What happened in 1874?
Gold is discovered in the Black Hills (Dakota).
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What is Manifest Destiny?
God's will that white Americans should settle over all of America. It was used because the US gov needed to populate their territory in the West to defend it from foreign powers. White Americans at the time accepted that Manifest Destiny was right.
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Give a brief description of what happened when gold was discovered in California.
The discovery of gold in California in 1848 led to a huge increase in migration to the West, and also had significant consequences for law and order, settlement, farming and for the Plains Indians.
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Who were the Gold Rush migrants?
From 1849, hundred of thousands travelled to California, hoping to find gold. Most migrants did not find gold. The use of the Trail dramatically increased. Thousands came by ship. A famine in China led to 20,000 people migrating to California in 1852
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Who were the most successful in finding gold?
Professional miners with the equipment and expertise to mine underground. They took over through the 1850s.
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What were the consequences of the Gold Rush?
Migration to California - 300,000 people by 1855. California becomes a state. Problems of lawlessness in the mining camps. Farming boom in California. Racial tension due to immigration. Gold from California boosts US economy - helps fund railroads.
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Manifest Destiny - white Americans see their 'destiny' coming true. Tension with Plain Indians due to huge increase in migration along Oregon Trail. Genocide of Californian Indians by migrants.
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Give some features of the Oregon Trail (OT) (on 2)
The OT was 3200km long - or 3800km for those using it to go on to California. Migrants needed to complete the journey before winter or risk getting stuck in the mountains. Migrants began the Trail in April when there'd be enough grass for animals.
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Early migrants used explorers or Indians as guides; later ones relied on pamphlets. Each trail crossed two mountain ranges. They were steep, there was little to hunt, and the weather could be bad. Wagons were hauled across and injuries were common.
Crossing the Great Plains was made dangerous by: sandstorms, quicksand, extreme heat, storms, disease, stampeding buffalo, hostile Indians and a lack of supplies. Migrants needed to take enough food for the entire journey.
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What did the Donner party do? (2)
The Donner party, led by Jacob and George Donner, left Missouri for California in May 1846 with 60 wagons and 300 people. This wagon train was well equipped but had more women, elderly and children than normal.
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At Fort Bridger, a smaller group of about 80 people tried to take a short cut. Four wagons broke, 300 cattle died and one man killed another. They arrived late in the Sierra Nevada and were trapped by heavy snow.
A group, sent for help, took 32 days to reach Johnson's Ranch. To survive, both groups ate their dead. Rescue parties found them in January 1847.
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What is the Morman migration?
The experience of the Mormon migration of 1846-47 shows how one group of migrants was able to deal with the challenges of migration through detailed organisation, religious motivation and hard work.
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Who is Joseph Smith? What did he do?
Founded the Church of Latter-Day Saints - followers known as Mormons. His persuasive public speaking meant numbers grew to hundreds by 1830. He taught Mormons to obey him because he said his decisions were inspired by God. Murdered in Illinois in1844
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What were the reasons for the Mormon persecution?
Their success. Their so-called blasphemy. Their desire to free slaves and be friends with Plains Indians. Their practice of polygamy. Their police force, the Danites.
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Where and when did they move to?
New York State (1823-31) --> Ohio (1831-37) --> Missouri (1837-38) --> Illinois (1838-46) --> Utah (1847-present)
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Why did they have to move to the Great Salt Lake?
When Smith died in 1845, Brigham Young became leader. The Mormons' persecution in Illinois forced him and 1500 others to find land that no one else wanted - near the Great Salt Lake.
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How did Young make the journey?
He split everyone into groups, each with a leader. He gave everyone a specific role. Taught them how to form their wagons into a circle for safety and insisted on discipline and regular rest. His was the first of many Mormon wagon trains to make it.
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Compare teh Donner party and the Mormon migration (2)
Young planned carefully where as the Donner's trusted a pamphlet. Young had enough food but Donner ran out. While the Donner party had many younger and older people, Young had specially chosen a group of 150 people.
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They were trained to pick out the best route, improve the trail and mark out water sources and grass for the animals. All this prepared the way for the next wagon train of 1500 Mormons.
Between 1847 and 1869, 70,000 Mormons followed the 'Mormon Trail'.
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Why were the Mormons successful in Utah? (2)
Their religious faith encouraged them to work very hard and prevented them giving up in the face of terrible hardship. Brigham Young was in control and made good decisions. The Mormon Church owned all land, water and timber.
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These were allocated to families. Towns ran efficiently. They dug irrigation ditches which meant farm land had enough water. A Perpetual Emigration fund provided the resources to help thousands of Mormans to emigrate to Utah.
Young organised settlers so that each new town had the right mix of skills to survive and prosper.
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What were the problems of farming the Plains?
Climate - very hot, dry summers and very cold winters. Grasshopper plagues and other insect pests. Weather - thunderstorms and violent winds. Lack of trees - very little timber for fencing or building.
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Thick sod - the soil was a tangled mass of grass roots. Prairie fires - dry grass burned easily. Lack of water - very little surface water and very low rainfall.
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How did settlers deal with a lack of timber?
Settlers lived in caves adn sod houses made from earth. The thick walls and roof were good insulation in winter. The earth walls and roof were fireproof, giving protection from prairie fires. However, sod houses were impossible to keep clean.
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They were full of insects. Settlers had to pay large amounts of money to import timber to fence their claims. This made homesteading expensive until 1874, when barbed wire was introduced as a c
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How was the environment on the Plains different to that of the East?
Crops that did well in the East shrivelled up and died from lack of water, or were eaten by insect infestations, such as grasshopper swarms. Ploughs that worked in the East broke when farmers tried to use them to plough through the thick sod.
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At first, settlers had to dig up the sod with spades, which was backbreaking. In California and Oregon, on the West coast, conditions for farming were much better. By the 1850s, Californian farmers were growing so much wheat they began exporting it.
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What were the reasons for tension between white settlers and Plains Indians?
Pressures on food supply. Increased conflicts between tribes. Rapid increase in white migration across the Plains. White fears of Indian attack. Discovery of gold in California (1848). Indian concerns about impacts on resources.
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Demands made to US government to provide protection. All of this led to the Fort Laramie Treaty (1851).
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Explain how all of these tensions led to the Fort Laramie Treaty (1851)
The huge increase in migrants along the Oregon Trail increased pressures on food supplies for Plains Indians, because the migrants disturbed the buffalo herbs. Less food meant more conflicts between tribes.
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White migrants assumed that any Indian war parties they saw were a threat to them. Mostly, though, they were just witnessing conflict between tribes.
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Why was the Fort Laramie Treaty significant? (Reason 1)
Territories set out for Plains Indian tribes. This led to reservations.
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(Reason 2)
White settlers allowed into Indian territories; Railroad surveyors and military posts in Indian territories. These led to white settlement of Great Plains.
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(Reason 3)
Tribes to receive resources from the US government. This led to loss of Indian independence.
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Why did the Plains Indians agree to the terms of the Treaty?
They agreed in return for an annuity of $50,000. It became a lever for the USgov to use against the Indians, and had the consequence of starting to encourage dependence of some Indians on the gov for food, resulting in a loss of Indian independence.
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What was the main cause of lawlessness in the West?
Such rapid rises in population that existing law enforcement could not cope.
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What were the common issues of lawlessness?
Mining camps were usually isolated in the mountains, a long way from the reach of the law. Mining camps were almost all-male, and violence was fuelled by alcohol, bad luck at card games and fights over women. Prejudice against Chinese immigrants.
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Outlaws and conmen targeted miners who did make money, and swindled those who failed to strike it lucky. New crimes: claim jumping was when one man took over a promising claim made by someone else. Miners' courts were set up to help settle claims.
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Who were US marshals?
Appointed by the President to be responsible for a state or a territory. States and territories were very large so they needed deputies.
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Who were Deputy marshals?
Assigned to specific towns and counties in the federal territories.
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Who were Town marshals?
Appointed by townspeople yearly. Their job was to deal with local outbreaks of lawlessness, like saloon brawls and drunken shootings. They could appoint deputies if necessary. There were fewer town marshals than sheriffs but they did similar work.
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Who were Sheriffs?
Appointed in the counties for a 2 year period of office. They could force local people to form into a posse to chase to local lawbreakers.They could appoint deputies if necessary.
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When did a territory become a state?
When it reached a population of 60,000 and it could have its own state legal system.
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Who was in charge of the territory before it became a state?
The federal government.
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What did the federal government do for law enforcement?
It decided on the laws for the territory and appointed a governor, 3 judges for court cases and a federal marshal (US marshal) for law enforcement?
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What could a territory do with a population of 5,000?
Communities could elect a sheriff. Sheriffs carried out law enforcement for a county.
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What problems did the geography cause?
Territories were huge areas with scattered settlements. It would be days before news of trouble reached the US marshals, then days before any response could be made.
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How did money cause federal law and order problems?
The federal government didn't spend much money on law enforcement, and law officers were poorly paid which meant corruption (e.g. taking bribes) more likely.
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What led to resentments?
Sheriffs were mainly chosen for their ability to keep peace (stop fights). They had no legal training and often their decisions were not very fair, which led to resentments.
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What was a consequence of the American Civil War?
The Homestead Act of 1862.
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What were the aims of the Homestead Act?
The US government wanted to encourage the settlement of the West by individual family farmers. It did not want rich landowners buying up all the land in the West.
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What did they do to try and complete their aims?
The land was available very cheaply. Most American citizens could file a claim for land. Homesteaders had to be able to prove they had lived on the land and improved it. Homesteaders were not allowed more than one claim.
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What were the consequences of the Homestead Act?
Over 6 million acres of federal land was homesteaded by 1876. 80 million acres was homesteaded by the end of the Act (1930s). The promise of free land was an important pull factor for immigration to the USA.Significant in encouraging white settlement
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What were the limitations of the Homestead Act?
There was a high dropout in homesteading: 60% of claims were never proved up, often because of problems farming the Plains. The plts were too small for the dry Plains environment. Despite the aims, rich landowners found ways to buy land using the Act
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The government gave 300 million acres to railroad companies, who sold it to settlers. This was more influential than the Homestead Act in settling the West.
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What incentives did the Pacific Railroad Act (1862) provide?
It provided the incentives for private companies to build the first transcontinental railroad (1869).
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Why did the US government need railroads to connect the east and west coasts?
To enable troops to be moved around (control Indian uprisings). They'd allow all Americans to keep in touch, national unity. They'd help to fulfil white Americans' Manifest Destiny by making it easier to migrate + secure more areas of the country.
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They'd let federal law officers reach new settlements that were having problems with law + order. They'd promote the settlement of the West. They'd transport goods to ports in Oregon + California, which were well positioned to trade with the Far East
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Why couldn't the Pacific Railroad Act (1862) be passed straight away?
The southern states had blocked the proposed route of the first transcontinental railroad (Omaha to Sacramento) because it benefited the North. So, it could noot be passed until the southern states temporarily left the Union in 1861.
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What did the Pacific Railroad Act grant?
It granted the enormous job of building the first transcontinental railroad to 2 companies: the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific.
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How did the government support the First Transcontinental Railroad?
They supported financially: $61 million in loans and 45 million acres of free land for the railroad companies to sell to settlers. It also agreed treaties with Plains Indians along the route to move them away to new reservations.
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How did railroads promote settlement?
By 1880, the RC's had settled 200 million acres in the West. RC's sold plots of land along their routes and set up towns at railheads. Railroad 'Bureaus of Immigration' sent agents to Europe to persuade immigrants to 'come West' and buy land.
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How was a lack of timber a problem for homesteaders?
There was nothing to build houses with. There was nothing to make fences to contain cattle and protect crops from animals. There was nothing to use for cooking and heating.
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What were the solutions to this problem?
People built sod houses made from blocks of earth. In 1874, Joseph Glidden invented barbed wire, which was quick and cheap to erect. Women collected dried buffalo and cattle dung, which was used for fuel.
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How was a lack of water a problem for homesteaders?
There was low rainfall and few rivers and lakes.
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What were the solutions to this problem?
Drills were developed to find underground water, then wind pumps built to bring it to the surface.
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How was hard, arid land a problem for homesteaders?
Ploughs often broke going through deep-rooted grass. Low rainfall prevented growth of crops like maize and wheat, which farmers were used to growing back east.
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What were the solutions to this problem?
Mass-produced and stronger machinery from eastern factories helped cultivate land more easily. New techniques like dry farming (which conserved rainwater) were used. Migrants from Russia used Turkey Red wheat, which thrived on the Plains.
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How were natural disasters (prairie fires and pests) a problem for homesteaders?
Pests, such as grasshoppers, could destroy a whole season's crop. Fire spread quickly and burned everything.
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What were the solutions to this problem?
There were no solutions. Homesteaders could be bankrupted by such disasters.
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How were land holdings being too small a problem for homesteaders?
The 160 acres allocated in the Homestead Act could not support the average family.
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What were the solutions to this problem?
The Timber Culture Act 1873 let homesteaders have another 160 acres if they promised to plant trees on half of it. The Desert Land Act 1877 let settlers buy 640 acres of desert land cheaply.
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How was disease and lack of medical care a problem for homesteaders?
Sod houses were hard to keep clean and had no sanitation.
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What were the solutions to this problem?
Women cared for the sick, using their own remedies. As communities grew, doctors arrived.
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How was a lack of education a problem for homesteaders?
Most homesteads were too far from towns with schools.
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What were the solutions to this problem?
Women taught the young. As communities grew, single female teachers arrived and schools developed.
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How was isolation a problem for homesteaders?
Life was lonely and tough on the Plains.
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What were the solutions to this problem?
Railroads improved travel and brought much-needed supplies to homesteaders. Communities worked together to build schools and churches. Women homesteaders formed valuable social networks.
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How did the Civil War impact lawlessness in the West?
Men from the defeated southern states resented the victorious US gov + its laws. Large numbers of men had been traumatised by the experience of the war + found it hard to fit in to 'regular society. The war devastated the South's economy,unemployment
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How did the railroads impact lawlessness in the West?
The new towns were known as 'Hell on Wheels'. They often grew very quickly + had no local law enforcement. Some were 'cow towns', where cowboys, who had just been paid after weeks after driving cattle, enjoyed drinking, dancing and fighting.
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The towns were notorious for gambling, heavy drinking and prostitution. Trains replaced stagecoaches for transporting valuables. This made them a target for train robbers.
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How was lawlessness tackled?
The railroads + electric telegraph improved communication between law officers, leading to overall increase in federal gov influence. However, new settlements were still mainly left to deal with lawlessness themselves, by electing sheriffs + marshals
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Give some specific examples of tackling lawlessness
Cow towns often passed laws banning firearms. Sheriffs + marshals enforced these laws by force of personality (and often with their fists). Gangs of outlaws were sometimes too powerful to control and intimidated whole communities into supporting them
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What happened with cattle trails and cow towns in 1855?
There was a quarantine - laws block Texan cattle from Missouri (1855) and Kansas (1859).
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What happened with cattle trails and cow towns in 1861-65?
The Civil War - Texans fight for Confederacy. Cattle herds run wild: 5 million cows by 1865.
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What happened with cattle trails and cow towns in 1861-65?
Beef was in high demand in northern towns and cities. Drives to Sedalia blocked because of Texas fever.
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What happened with cattle trails and cow towns in 1867?
Railroad reaches Abilene, Kansas. Joseph McCoy sets up first cow town. 35,000 cows driven to Abilene.
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What happened with cattle trails and cow towns in 1870s?
'Beef bonanza' - investors pile in to cattle industry from around the world. Rise of the cattle barons.
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Who saw potential in the first cow town, Abilene?
Joseph McCoy was the first to see the potential of Abilene, but it took work to make it a success.
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What work had to be done to make Abilene a cow town?
Building stockyards + hotels, building a railroad spur for loading cattle onto railroad trucks, extending the Chisolm Trail up to Abilene, agreeing passage through Indian territory, promoting the new route in Texas - McCoy spent $5000 on marketing.
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Who created the Goodnight-Loving Trail?
Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving.
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When did they make their first trail and what was it?
In 1866, which was to Fort Sumner where the government had failed to get enough supplies for Navajo Indian reservations. 800 cattle sold for $12,000, which was four times the price of cattle in Texas.
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When was it extended?
In 1868, Goodnight's trail extended up to Colorado (booming mining towns) and Wyoming, to the Union Pacific Railroad.
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What did Goodnight's success mean?
It meant other cattlemen started to drive cattle to Wyoming, and Wyoming's cattle ranches began to grow.
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What was the significance of the Goodnight-Loving Trail?
Recognised new markets in West. Helped grow Wyoming cattle industry.
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What opportunities did Iliff see in Colorado?
He saw opportunities to sell meat to booming mine towns. He also saw the opportunity to raise cattle on the Plains and began ranching near Denver in 1866.
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What was his situation by 1870?
He had a herd of 26,000 cattle on the Plains, on a ranch stretching over 16,000 acres. Iliff became Denver's first millionaire by selling his beef to miners, Indian reservations and railroad worker gangs.
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Who were cowboys?
Cowboys were mostly young single men. They were black American, Indian, Spanish and Mexican as well as white American. Many were former soldiers or drifters. Some were criminals on the run.
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What were they like?
Cowboys were tough, hard-working and often hard-drinking. On long trails they could ride for between 12 and 24 hours a day in all weathers. Cowboys on the same cattle drive often worked miles apart, so life would be lonely.
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What did they wear?
The hat (Stetson) gave protection from the sun, rain and cold. A saddle was a cowboy's most important possession. High-heeled boots meant their feet couldn't slip through stirrups. Spurs were worn at all times.
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The bandana, pulled over the nose and mouth, gave protection from dust when driving cattle. A lariat or lasso was used to catch cattle. Chaps protected cowboys' legs from vegetation and the weather.
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What was work like for cowboys on trails?
Work: seasonal, from spring round-up to the long drive in the autumn. Included rounding up, branding+driving cattle hundreds of miles. They also looked out for sick and injured cattle. They started fast, then slowed to about 20km a day for grazing.
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What were the dangers for cowboys on trails?
Dangers included stampeding cattle, wild animals, crossing rivers and quicksand, rustlers, hostile Indians and extreme weather.
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Where did the cowboys on trails sleep?
They slept in the open air and cooked on campfires.
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What did cowboys on trails do in tier free time?
They might visit saloons and brothels in cow towns.
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What was work life for cowboys on ranches?
Work: year-roud and fulltime, but fewer were needed. Included rounding up, branding and driving to market, but over much smaller distances. They also checked ranch boundaries, mended fences and looked out for sick and injured cattle.
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What were the dangers for cowboys on ranches?
Dangers were fewer than on trails, but rustlers, wild animals and Indian attacks were still threats.
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Where did cowboys on ranches sleep?
They slept in bunkhouses and used cookhouses.
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What did cowboys on ranches do in their free time?
Drinking, gambling, guns and knives were banned. Many struggled to adapt to this lifestyle.
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Why did open-range ranching need a lot of land?
It needed a lot of land so that large herds of cattle could roam around+have enough to eat. Federal law said everyone could pasture livestock on public land for free. Ranchers divided up the open range between ranches+only bought a few plots.
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When did the problems with this come?
When homesteaders began filing claims to turn 160-acre plots of public land into homesteads.
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What taactics did ranchers use to block homesteaders?
1)Filing claims themselves to parts of the range that HSs may be interested in. 2)Buying+fencing enough land to block off access to other plots. 3)Taking HSs to court over rights to the land, knowing that homesteaders were too poor to pay court fees.
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How did fences cause problems?
Farmers+ranchers argued over fencing. Farmers said ranchers should fence their land to stop cattle roaming onto crops. Ranchers said their cattle had a right to roam; that fencing was the farmers' responsibility, and they should not harm their cattle
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Arguments over fencing ended up in state court cases. Outside the courts, tension between ranchers and homesteaders was common. Sometimes this turned into open conflict.
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How did the railroads impact Plains Indians? (buffalo)
Railroads disrupted the buffalo migrations through settled areas because of the noise of the trains and the fencing of railroad tracks. Railroads also contributed to the extermination of the buffalo.
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How did the railroads impact Plains Indians? (funding and reservations)
Railroads were funded by land grants that the railroad companies sold to settlers. Railroads encouraged settlement of the Plains. Railroads + reservations: the government persuaded tribes to give up lands along railroad routes + move to reservations.
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How did the cattle industry impact Plains Indians? (cattle/buffalo)
Cattle and buffalo competed for the same grass, so, as cattle numbers increased, buffalo herds were put under pressure. The number of cattle in the West increased from 130,000, in 1860, to 4.5million in 1880.
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How did the cattle industry impact Plains Indians? (cattle trails)
Cattle trails often crossed Indian lands. In Indian Territory, the tribes allowed this in return for a fee, but in the southwest the Comanche did not allow it and attacked cowbys, leading to tensions and US Army retaliation attacks.
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What did the 1849 Gold Rush in California lead to?
It led to whites trespassing on Indian land: Oregon Trail. This led to the Fort Laramie Treaty (1851) and the Indian Appropriations Act (1851).
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What did the 1859 Gold Rush in Rocky Moutains lead to?
Whites trespassing on Cheyenne and Arapaho land which led to the Fort
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What did the 1863 Gold Rush in Montana lead to?
Whites trespassing on SIoux lands: Bozeman Trail which led to Red Cloud's War (1866-68) which led to Fort Laramie Treaty 1868).
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Why did Indians move to reservations?
Usually because the tribe’s council agreed it was necessary for survival. White American expansion meant there was less land to hunt on and fewer animals. The USgov promised protection of their lands and regular food supplies.
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Tribes desperate for food would sign treaties in order to get something to eat. Some tribes sided with the USgov for support against their enemies. The US Army used force to move Indians to reservations and keep them there.
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What were the impacts of reservations?
Reservations undermined traditional Indian ways of life in three ways.
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What is one of the ways the reservations undermined the Indians traditional way of life?
Reservations were made smaller, so that Indians could not survive by hunting. Many Indians became dependent on food supplied from the government.
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What are the other two ways the reservations undermined the Indian traditional way of life?
The Bureau of Indian Affairs agents that ran the reservations were frequently corrupt and tribes out of their annuities. When conflicts arose because of these pressures, the gov used them as an excuse to take more land from the tribes.
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What did President Grant recognise?
He recognised that bad reservation management was leading to conflict.
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What did he do to try and combat this?
He created his Peace Policy. He appointed new reservation agents, who had strong religious views so the would not cheat Indians. He made an Indian, Ely Parker, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. He obtained a budget of $2mill to improve conditions.
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What happened to Indians who resisted moving to reservations under the Peace Policy?
They were to be treated as ‘hostile’, and force could be used against them.
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What did tensions between the Plains Indians and white Americans lead to?
The Indian Wars, which included, Little Crow's War 1862, the Sand Creek Massacre 1864, and Red Cloud's War 1866-68.
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Explain how Little Crow's War was caused.
Little Crow, a chief of the Santee Sioux Indians, lived on their reservation in Minnesota. In 1861, crops failed and food promised by the government didn't arrive - the Indians faced starvation.
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Explain the events of Little Crow's War.
August 1862, LC attacked the agency that ran the reservation. Stole food, then burned the agency buildings. Killed US soldiers. Oct, most Santee had surrendered or been captured. They were then moved to a smaller reservation, Crow Creek.
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What caused many deaths in winter at Crow Creek?
It's barren landscape.
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Explain how the Sand Creek Massacre was caused.
The Cheyenne on the Sand Creek reservation were starving after crop failures.
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Explain the events of the Sand Creek Massacre (2 cards)
Led by Black Kettle, they attacked wagon trailers and stole food but didn't harm travellers. After 3 years of attacks, Black Kettle negotiated with gov officials and the army. On 29 November 1864, Colonel Chivington led a dawn raid on their camp.
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More than 150 Indians were massacred even though they waved white flags. Some, including Black Kettle, escaped and told other tribes what had happened. A US Senate Committee of Enquiry condemned Chivington. Both white men and Indians were horrified.
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Explain how Red Cloud's War was caused.
Miner John Bozeman established the Bozeman Trail, connecting the Oregon Trail to gold in Montana. Bozeman's trail broke the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 because it crossed the hunting grounds of the Sioux. Red Cloud led attacks on the trail travellers
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What did these attacks by Red Cloud lead to?
1866, gov talked with him but he stormed out when he learned that 2 more forts were planned along the trail. December 1866, Captain William Fetterman+80 soldiers rode into a trap+were massacred by the Sioux, who blocked the route.
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What did Red Cloud's War lead to?
The US army negotiated a second Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868.
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What did the Fort Laramie Treaty, 1868 promise?
US gov agrees to abandon 3 forts and the Bozeman Trail. Red Cloud agrees to move his tribe to a reservation stretching from the Black Hills of Dakota to the Missouri River.
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Was this treaty favoured?
Both parties are in favour of the treaty. However, the Indians, now split into reservations on separate sites, find it hard to act together.
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How was Red Cloud successful with the Fort Laramie Treaty. 1868?
He joined with other Sioux tribes led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, plus some Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes. He managed to keep fighting through winter (not their custom).
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What happened in the period 1876-1895 to do with farming?
New technologies and methods began to have a significant impact on farming the Plains. By the 1890s, the problems facing farmers in the West had become manageable.
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What was the new farming method?
Dry farming
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What was the aim of dry farming?
Dry farming aimed to conserve the amount of water trapped in the soil: for example, by ploughing the soil immediately after it rained.
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Who promoted dry farming and what did they promote it for?
Agricultural experts promoted dry farming as the best farming method for homesteaders to use in growing wheat.
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What was dry farming responsible for?
Dry farming was the main method responsible for turing the Plains into America's main wheat-producing region.
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What was one new technology?
Wind pumps
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How did wind pumps start?
Successful wind pumps in the West started with the development of a 'self-regulating' windmill: it turned automatically as the wind changed direction. It was invented in 1854, but it took years of development to become widespread.
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What was the use of the wind pump?
To pump water up from hundreds of metres underground.
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What was needed for the wind pump to work?
High steel towers, efficient gear mechanisms and large steel windmill blades were needed to generate enough power.
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What had happened to the wind pumps by the 1880s?
Powerful wind pumps had been developed that did not need constant repairing and oiling. These became widespread across the West.
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What problem did the wind pumps solve?
Finding enough water to farm the Plains: now farmers could access water many hundreds of metres underground.
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What was the other new technology?
Barbed wire
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When was barbed wire first introduced and what did it become?
1874 and became the ideal solution to the problem of there being no wood for fences.
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What was the downside of barbed wire at first?
When it was introduced, it was relatively expensive and broke too easily. Some types had long barbs that wounded cattle.
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What had happened to barbed wire by the 1880s?
A coating had been applied to the wire to make it stronger, and new techniques had made it much cheaper.
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Who used barbed wire?
Farmers. The cattle industry also used barbed wire to fence off land. Railroadsused it to fence off tracks.
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What caused overstocking through the 1870s?
So much money went into cattle ranching causing the open range to become overstocked.
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What were the consequences of overstocking the open range?
Too many cattle (As cattlemen made more money, they bought and bred more cattle) -> Overgrazing (Too little grass) and Prices dropped (Oversupply of beef meant prices dropped) -> Less profit (Some cattlemen sold up, others became bankrupt)
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What happened in the winter of 1886-87?
Freezing temperatures and deep snow meant at least 15% of cattle died. More cattlemen went bankrupt.
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What happened after the winter of 1886?
Those cattle ranchers who were still in business moved to smaller ranches with fenced-in pastures. Smaller herds were easier to manage and couldx be brought under shelter in bad winter weather.
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Smaller herds in fenced pastures were easier to guard against cattle rustlers. Rancher brought in high-quality breeds that produced better meat. These animals were kept separate from other breeds so their calves would be high quality, too.
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How did smaller herds help the cattle industry?
Smaller numbers of cattle reduced the supply of beef, which helped raise prices for beef again. Higher quality beef could also be sold at higher prices. This meant the cattle industry could start to recover.
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What were the consequences of the changes in the cattle industry because of the winter of 1886 for cowboys?
Many cowboys died in the winter. Cowboys now had much less adventurous lives: branding, de-horning and dipping cattle, looking after horses and calves, mending barbed wire fences, repairing buildings, inspecting the grass and harvesting the hay.
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Cowboys lived in bunkhouses, which were often not very comfortable, with leaking roofs, thin walls and beds full of lice. There were schedules to keep to and rules to follow, which often included a ban on carrying firearms. Cowboy numbers dropped.
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What was the Exoduster movement?
It happened in 1879, when a migration of black Americans from the southern states to Kansas took place.
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What was the cause of the Exodus movement?
After slavery was abolished in the Civil War, black Americans in the southern states were supposed to become equal to whites. However, many white southerners prevented this. They kept their former slaves economically dependent on them + used violence
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Why did the Exoduster movement, 1879 happen?
The Bible story of Exodus-escape from slavery. Continued oppression in the southern states. Benjamin Singleton promoted Kansas, helped migrants. Kansas' reputation in the fight against slavery. The Homestead Act (1862) and the promise of free land.
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What were the consequences of the Exoduster movement (problems with farming)?
Other settlers had already taken the best land. Most Exodusters had no money for setting up farming. Most Exoduster homesteaders found it very difficult to survive.
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What were the consequences of the Exoduster movement (responses to Exodusters)?
Southern whites strongly opposed the migration. Whites in Kansas did not think Exodusters should be helped. Kansas governor set up some help for migrants including some money to get started.
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What were the consequences of the Exoduster movement?
By 1880 mass migration ended: too many problems. By 1880 43,000 black Americans settled in Kansas. Exodusters typically stayed poorer than white migrants and had fewer rights.
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What happened in 1889?
The US government opened up the middle section for white settlement.
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What happened on the 22nd April 1889?
Thousands of settlers rushed over the boundary to claim their 160-acre section: a land rush.
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What was this land rush called?
The Oklahoma Land Rush.
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How many Oklahoma land rushes were there?
7
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When was the first Oklahoma land rush?
1889, when 2 million acres were opened for settlement.
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When was the last Oklahoma land rush?
1895, when 88,000 acres were opened for settlement.
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What was the biggest Oklahoma land rush?
The Cherokee ***** Land Rush, was in 1893, when 8 million acres were opened for settlement.
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Who were good example of how tensions affected lawlessness and attempts to enforce law and order?
Billy the Kid and Wyatt Earp.
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Give a brief history of Billy the Kid.
Billy grew up in poverty+was soon in trouble for stealing. 1878, he became involved in a range war between cattle baron John Chisum+smaller ranchers. Billy swore revenge when friends were killed. Billy's gang caused chaos across New Mexico.
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Only when a new governor appointed a new sheriff, Pat Garrett, could the law be enforced. After escaping jail, Billy was tracked down and shot dead by Garrett in 1881.
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What were the 4 causes of tension?
Conflict over resources, intimidation and corruption, geography, and poverty.
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Give a specific example of conflict over resources for Billy the Kid
Billy involved in a war between ranchers.
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Give a specific example of intimidation and corruption for Billy the Kid
Local law enforcement was weak and caught up in the range war.
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Give a specific example of geography for Billy the Kid
Billy's gang could easily escape the law and hide in remote areas.
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Give a specific exampe of poverty for Billy the Kid
Life for most people was hard. Being an outlaw was glamorous and exciting.
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What was the general trend in the West of law and order?
Law and order was getting more under control.
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Give a breif history of Wyatt Earp
Earp got into law enforcement after he was arrested for fighting in Wichita+then helped the deputy marshal deal with a rowdy bunch of cowboys. 1879, he had moved to the mining town of Tombstone. Rich businessmen were fighting for control of the area.
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With ranchers+cowboys led by the Clantons(C)+McLaurys(M). 1880, businessmen hired Earp as deputy sheriff to end the fight in their favour. After months of clashes with the C+Ms, Earp+his brothers killed 2 Ms+1C at the OK Corral, 26 Oct 1886.
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Cowboys then killed Morgan Earp. Wyatt Earp immediately killed 2 men who he said were responsible. Public opnion in the town against the Earps, who were considered murderers with no respect for the law. They left Tombstone in 1882.
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What was the first part of the OK Corral?
Conflict over resources: Wyatt Earp and his brothers were involved in a war between businessmen and ranchers.
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What was the second part of the OK Corral?
Intimidation and Corruption: Earp and his brothers were accused of criminal acts (involvement in stagecoach robberies) and of murder - instead of reducing lawlessness in Tombstone, they increased it.
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What was the third part of the OK Corral?
Law and order: The gunfight at the OK Corral was criticised as lawlessness. Tombstone residents thought Wyatt should have arrested the suspects.
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What was the last part of the OK Corral?
Unreliable lawmen: Earp was arrested 9 times. Law officers often had criminal pasts.
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What is the best known range war over control of land and resources in the West?
The Johnson County War of 1892
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Background to the Johnson County War - The growth of the cattle industry in Wyoming?
Only 9000 US citizens lived in Wyoming Territory inn the early 1870s. Most of the land was public. Huge cattle ranches developed, backed by foreign investment. A few very rich men owned the cattle ranches. They controlled Wyoming.
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Background to the Johnson County War - The impact of the winter of 1886-87?
The winter caused losses to the herds in Wyoming. The power+influence of the big ranchers was shaken, some went bankrupt. Smaller ranchers did better as they could rescue more of the cattle. The big ranchers believed the smaller ranchers stole cattle
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Background to the Johnson County War - Tensions between big and small ranchers?
Population increased; more homesteaders+small ranchers moved there. 1884, 10,000 acres homesteaded. Barbed wire fences were a problem for big ranches. Newcomers disliked the way big ranchers wouldn't share political power.
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In Johnson County, what did juries never do?
They never convicted people accused of rustling big ranch cattle.
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Background to the Johnson County War - The killing of Ella Watson and Jim Averill?
Watson+Averill were homesteaders. Their 640 claim was to public land that rancher Albert Bothwell used for his cattle. Averill wrote rude letters about Bothwell to the local newspaper. Watson obtained a small herd of cows.
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Bothwell accused her of rustling his cows. Bothwell and his men hanged Watson and Averill and, soon after, took back the land.
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How did the conflict begin?
As a result of the 5 killings, the small ranchers announced they would hold a spring roundup of cattle earlier than the roundup of WSGA: the big ranchers. WSGA members were sure the small ranchers would use this to steal more cattle from them.
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What was the 'invasion'?
The WSGA hired 22 gunmen from Texas to 'invade' Johnson County and kill 70 suspected rustlers. They raised $100,000: most of it would be used to pay for legal costs after the invasion.
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Was the invasion successful? Why?
The invasion failed. The 'invaders' got held up in a shoot-out with Nate Champion. Word reached Sheriff Angus of Johnson County, and residents of the county's main town, Buffalo. The invaders were surrounded and arrested.
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What were the consequences of the Johnson County War?
The WSGA's $100,000 was used to hire the best Chicago lawyers. The lawyers got the trial moved to Cheyenne. Juries here favoured the WSGA. The WSGA lawyers delayed the trial until Johnson County could no longer afford to keep the prisoners in jail.
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The state government, full of WSGA supporters, refused to help wih the costs of the trial. The 'invaders' were set free.
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What was the significance of this?
Although the 'invaders' were set free, it is significant that vigilatism was so strongly resisted in Johnson County.
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Wy was 1876 a turning point in the history of the American West?
Because of the Battle of the Little Big Horn.
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What happened in this battle?
In this battle, combined forces of the Sioux nation defended the US Army. The shock of this defeat transformed US policy towards the Indians.
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What was the first key event of the 'Great Sioux War'?
In teh 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty, the Sioux were given a large reservation in South Dakota and could roam freely in the Black Hills (sacred for the Cheyenne, Arapaho and Sioux). Whites were not allowed to settle there or prospect for gold.
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What was the second key event of the 'Great Sioux War'?
As the Northern Pacific Railroad got closer to Sioux land, Generla George Custer led cavalrymen to protect the railroad builders and look for gold.
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What was the third key event of the 'Great Sioux War'?
Prospectors staked their claims to the land. The US government offered the Sioux $6million for the Black Hills or $400,000 a year for the mineral rights. They refused both offers and many bands left the Sioux reservation.
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What was the fourth key event of the 'Great Sioux War'?
In December 1875, the Sioux were given 60 days to return to their reservation or be attacked. There was deep snow and it was impossible to travel.
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What was the fifth key event of the 'Great Sioux War'?
By spring, over 7000 Indians were ready for war.
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What was the sixth key event of the 'Great Sioux War'?
Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and their people defeated General Crook at the Rosebud River on 17 June 1876. They then travelled west towards the Little Big Horn River.
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What was the last key event of the 'Great Sioux War'?
On 25 June 1876, Custer attacked the Indian camp at the Little Big Horn. They were badly defeated - 225 men died and many were stripped, disfigured and scalped.
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What was Custer's role in the Battle of the Little Big Horn?
Some blame Custer for the army's defeat at the battle because: he sould have waited for back-up, he only had 600 men and split them to attack, and this meant they were heavily outnumbered and easily overcome (defeated).
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What were the consequences of the Battle of the Little Big Horn?
The massacre of General Custer and his men shocked and appalled most white Americans. Beforehand, public opinion favoured trying to reach agreement with the Indians. Afterwards, white people wanted to destroy the Indians, or atleast their way of life
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Was the battle a short term success or failure?
A huge failure for the US Army.
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Was the battle a long term success or failure?
Success because the defeat led to: two forts being built and 2500 army reinforcements sent west, the pursuit of the Cheyenne and Sioux until most were in their reservations, the capture of Crazy Horse, who was later killed trying to escape.
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Sitting Bull moving his tribes to Canada; however, food shortages forced his return and surrender in 1881, and the Sioux being forced to sell the Black Hills and other land, give up their weapons and horses, and liver under military rule.
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What did all of these reasons contibute to?
The Indians' eventual defeat.
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What was the Ghost Dance and why did Indians do it?
In 1890, Sioux rations were fut and a drought meant their crops failed. An Indian had a vision that if they all kept dancing, the Great Spirit would bring back the dead and a great flood would carry white people away.
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More and more Indians began to dance, which worried the Indian agents and white settlers. The army moved in to stop them.
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Who was killed during the Ghost Dance?
Sitting Bull was killed when Sioux police tried to arrest him in case he led a new rebellion against the US control of his people.
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What were the events of the Wounded Knee Massacre. 29 December 1890?
Snow and pneumonia slowed Big Foot's band down and the army caught them. They were taken to Wounded Knee Creek where the army began to disarm them. The Indians started dancing and shooting broke out. After 10 mins, 250Indians and 25soldiers were dead
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What did the Wounded Knee Massacre mark?
It marked the end of Indian resistance.
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What were the impacts of the Wounded Knee Massacre?
The Massacre confirmed white views about the need to exterminate 'hostile' Indians. White people thought it was justified. The last clash between the Sioux and the US Army. The end to Sioux bands resisting Army control.
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It became a key symbol of oppression in the later fight for Indian civil rights. The end of the Indians frontier: nowhere within the USA now belonged to any other people or nation. The end of the Ghost Dance: it had upset and worried Americans.
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What were the 5 factors leading to the end of Plains Indians' control over their way of life?
Railroads in the West, the extermination of the buffalo, the government's reservation policy, the discovery of gold in the West, and homesteads on the Plains.
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In 1840, how many buffalo were there on the Great Plains?
13 million
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By 1885, how many buffalo were there on the Great Plains?
200
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How were buffalo a source of life for Plains Indians?
Buffalo provided Plains Indians with almost all they needed to survive. Their destruction meant the destruction of this way of life.
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What did Buffalo Hill (William Cody) do?
William Cody was employed by the Kansas Pacific Railroad Company to clear buffalo from the tracks and supply workers with meat. He claimed he had killed 4280 buffalo in 17 months.
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How were buffalo exterminated?
Their habitat was crossed by railroads. Railroad copanies used hunters to kill them to feed construction workers. Their hides were made into quality leather goods. White hunters earned good money supplying them. They were killed by tourists.
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Hunted for sport. The grassland they fed on was destroyed or eaten by other animals when settlers built houses, towns, trails and railroads. They also caught diseases spread by the settlers' cattle and horses.
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Who was responsible for the extermination of buffalo?
The government+the army encouraged it. Indians were banned from leaving reservations to live more like Americans. Destroying the buffalo meant Indians were less likely to protest about the loss of their nomadic lifestyle. WAs enjoyed buffalo hunting.
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What was life like on reservations (Reservation land)?
Indian reservations were created on land that was least wanted by white Americans. It was not fertile, didn't contain minerals and would make survival difficult.
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What was life like on reservations (Indian agents)?
The government appointed Indian agents to look after the reservations, but they were often corrupt. Money or rations intended for the Indians often disappeared.
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What was life like on reservations (Living conditions)?
Rations were poor and crops often failed. Medical care was very poor. Diseases such as measles and flu were common. Many reservation Indians died from them.
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What was life like on reservations (Indian Agency Police)?
Some Indians joined this force to control reservations. In return, they had better food, clothing and shelter than others on the reservation.
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How did tribal chiefs lose their power?
The government removed the ability of chiefs to influence+guide their bands+tribes. 1871: chiefs no longer signed treaties. Early 1880s: chiefs no longer looked after reservations, councils did. 1883: Indians were judged and punished in special court
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How were Indian children taught white American values?
They were sent to schools where they were punished for using their own language and respecting their culture. They no longer fitted in with their families, but they weren't accepted by the whites either.
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How were Indian beliefs banned?
Putting an end to feasts, dances and ceremonies reduced the power of Indian life. Christian missionaries were sent in to 'civilise' the Indians.
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How were Indians not allowed to hunt?
This affected their whole social structure and removed mens traditional role. It also affected their clothing and lifestyle.
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How were Indians de-skilled?
They were excellent horsemen, hunters and warriors. However, they had no horses on reservations, so they could not hunt buffalo or fight. Some Indians refused to learn 'white' skills like ploughing, sowing and reaping.
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What were the pressures on the government policy?
Government policy swung between assimilation(becoming part of US society) and protection.
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What were government attitudes to the Plains Indians?
Indians should assimilate into white America: become farmers, Christians, +settle in one place. Pressure from whites wanting Indian land. Pressure from whites who thought Indians were being given too much help. Indians should be protected from whites
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What was the Dawes Act, 1887?
Each Indian family was allotted a 160-acre share of reservation land. 80 acres were allotted to single Indians; 40 acres to orphan under 18. Indians who took their allotment and left the reservation became American citizens.
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Indians could not sell their land allotments for 25yrs. All the reservation land left over after the allotments could be sold to whites.
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What were the aims of the Dawes Act?
Encourage individualism, encourag Indians to assimilate and become US citizens, reduce the influence of chiefs, reduce the cost of reservations, free up more land, and encourage farming in Indian families.
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What was the significance of the Dawes Act?
The Act failed to improve conditions for Indians. By 1890, Indians had lost half the land they had. Indians were not able to farm successfully. Most Indians sold their land and ended up landless. White Americans cheated many Indians into selling land
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What was the closure of the Indian Frontier?
In 1890, the US census office, part of the US government, declared that there was no longer a frontier line between white settlement adn 'wilderness' (Indian lands). The USA had complete control of the West.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are some examples of Plains Indians tribes?

Back

The Sioux, Cheyenne and Blackfoot.

Card 3

Front

What is a band?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a chief?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a tribe?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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