History- American West 1845-90

Indians - Society
They had a chief and a council. Indian bands worked together for support. The council made the decisions.
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Indians - Homes
Indian Homes were made from buffalo skin, called a tipi. They were strong (wind resistant)
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Indians - Family life
They left the weak behind when moving camps. Mens jobs were hunting for food and defending camp. womens jobs were to make useful things from buffalo and cook. Children were taught respect. Polygamy is to have more than 1 wife.
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Indians - Fighting and War
Indians did not go to war for land. Indians feared being scalped because it meant the enemy had their soul - scalping showed bravery.
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Indians - Coup stick
The coup stick was a stick which indians would touch their enemies with. It showed reponsibility without taking risks. Decorated with feathers, 1 feather=1 enemy touched.
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Indians - warfare
All wars were decided by either the chief or medicine man. Everyone who drew smoke from the chiefs pipe gave consent that they'd go to war. war dance. Wore traditional tribal paint and clothing. Treaty-pipe of peace and flag of truce.
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Indians - Buffalo
Before horses, they followed buffalo on foot, covered in animal skin to disguise their human smell. Sometimes they would stampede - trapping them in a valley or push them off cliff.
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Indians - Spiritual beliefs
Waken Tanka - one great God in the sky. They believed that everything had a spirit even rocks and streams, the spirits would influence their lives on the great Plains. High land=sacred. Earth=Mother, cutting or mining=Hurting Mother. Dances=Important
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Indians - Circles
Circles were very important to Indians. They believed the world works in circles. Tipis=Circles. They believed that circles could also summon spirits. They would torture themselves hoping to bring visions.
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Manifest destiny
The belief that it was God's will that white Americans should settle all of America, because it was right and natural that it to be so.
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Jim Bridger
Famous mountain man. Guided wagon trains across the plains and Rocky mountains. established the trading post Fort Bridger.
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Joseph smith
Founded the Mormon religion. Led the mormons in the East from town to town. Killed by a mob in 1846.
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Brigham Young
The second leader of the mormons. Took them to the Salt Lake Valley and established Salt Lake City. encouraged emigration to Salt Lake city.
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Charles Goodnight
One of the earliest cattlemen who drove cattle from Texas to the Plains after the American Civil war. Established the Goodnight-loving Trail.
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Joseph McCoy
Set up the first cow town - Abilene - on the plains as a place where cattlemen and cowboys could meet with buyers from the East.
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John Illif
The first cattleman to graze cattle on the plains. This was the beginning of ranching on the Plains.
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Jesse Jame
An Outlaw who robbed banks, trains and stage-coaches. Killed by a member of his own gang who wanted to claim the reward.
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Wyatt Earp
A horse thief as a young man who later became one of the most famous sheriffs in the West. Part of the gunfight at the OK Corral, Tombstone.
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Jim Averill & Ella Watson
A couple of homesteaders who lived together just outside Johnson County. They were accused of rustling cattle and lynched in 1889.
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Red Angus
The Sheriff of Johnson County who fought against the invading cattlemen in the Johnson county war
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Little Crow
An Indian leader who fought against the reservation Agency when his tribe were starving in 1862.
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Black Kettle
Leader of the Cheyenne - Escaped when his tribe were massacred at Sand creek in 1864.
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Red Cloud
Fought against miners who were travelling along the Bozeman trail through the Lakota reservation.
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General Cluster
US General killed at the Battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876.
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Terry, Crook and Gibbon
Officers in Custer's cavalry who didn't make it to the Battle of Little Big Horn.
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Sitting Bull
One of the leades of the Lakota Indians. He led the Indian Braves in the Battle of Little Big Horn.
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Crazy Horse
Another leader of the Lakota Indians. He had a vision that the Sioux would win a great victory against the white man.
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Wovaka
The Indian who taught the Sioux the Ghost Dance.
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Wars - Little Crow's
1862. Little crow and Santee sioux
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Wars - Red Cloud's
1865-68
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Wars - Sand Creek Massacre
1864
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Americans Moving West - Push Factors
In 1837 Banks collapsed in the East. Wages cut by 40%. Collapse of wheat prices. Overpopulation. Religious persecution. Unemployment.
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Americans Moving West - Pull Factors
Freedom and independence. Fertile land. Space. Furs and fish. Gold.
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Americans Moving West - Gold
In 1848 Gold discovered in California. Get rich quick. By 1849 there were 90,000 gold miners nicknamed the '49er's' Only few became rich. Important because increased the amount of money, made San Francisco big, Railways grew, More People moved West.
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Wars - The Battle of Little Big Horn
1868 Fort Laramie treaty, Sioux were given a reservation in South Dakota-no whites allowed. Northern Pacific railroad got closer to Sioux land, Custer went looking for Gold and found it. Government offered Sioux $6 million for land.
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Wars - The Battle of Little Big Horn Continued...
They refused and left the reservation. in December 1875, they were given 60 days to return or be attacked. Wasnt possible due to bad weather. By spring, 7000 inidans were ready for war. Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and their people defeated Crook .
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Wars - The Battle of Little Big Horn Continued...
On 25th June 1876, Custer attacked inian camp at Little Big Horn. They were badly defeated - 225 men died. Many stripped, disfigured and scalped. Huge Failure for US Army. Custer to blame, he should have waited for back-up.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Indians - Homes

Back

Indian Homes were made from buffalo skin, called a tipi. They were strong (wind resistant)

Card 3

Front

Indians - Family life

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Indians - Fighting and War

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Indians - Coup stick

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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