- Created by: CBright
- Created on: 16-06-17 13:53
What financial help was set up in 1911 and what did it cover?
National insurance benefit which only covered workers in a few industries, such as shipbuilding, where work was not steady.
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What did national insurance cover?
If work dried up, the fund paid benefit for up to 15 weeks.
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What did the government set up in November 1918?
An Out-of-Work Donation scheme, often referred to as the dole, which paid a small amount of benefit.
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Why was the dole set up?
To help returning soldiers and war workers who could not find employment.
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What did women have to do after the war?
They had to give up the jobs which they had taken up during to war to men who were returning from the war and looking for employment.
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What did the depression do?
It made unemployment in Britain worse, in 1929 there were 1.5 million unemployed and by 1930 it had risen to 2.4 million.
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How did the unemployed protest?
They collected petitions, they wrote to the government, they wrote to newspapers and they went on hunger marches.
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What was the National unemployed workers movement and when was it set up?
They tried hard to make the point that they unemployed were not lazy and that they wanted work more than they wanted increased benefits, it was set up in 1921.
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When was unemployment highest and in what industries?
It was highest in the 1930's in the coal, iron, steal, cotton and shipbuilding industries.
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Where was unemployment highest?
In the north and east of England and in Scotland and wales.
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What were the unemployment figures in 1932?
34.5% of all miners and 62% of all shipbuilders were unemployed.
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Where were all the new factories built and why was this an issue?
80% of all new factories were in London and they used electricity instead of coal so did not help the coal industry however they did keep employment up in London and the south east.
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What could happen if you lived in the right area and were in the right profession?
The depression could pass you by, there were people who were living well and went almost untouched by the depression.
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When did labour come to power and who was the prime minister?
1929 with Ramsay MacDonald
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What did the government need and what did they do to get it?
They needed money as the gov. Was in debt and the depression made it difficult to borrow money and so the gov. Made huge spending cuts (e.g. Reduced workers wages by 10-15%) but still could not pay the 1929 unemployment benefits.
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What made this worse?
The unemployment insurance act would push up the cost of benefits because under this act more people would be entitled to benefits and claimants no longer had to prove that they were 'actively seeking work'.
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As a result what did the government do in August 1931?
They discussed cutting the benefit rate by 15% and installed a means test
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What happened in 1934?
The government made the unemployment act.
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What was the unemployment act?
It clarified the different types of benefit.
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What was one type of benefit?
1) national insurance benefit was the right of everyone paying their NI contributions. There was no means test but you only got it for 15 weeks.
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What was the other type of benefit?
The 'dole' was a lower payment given to those who had not paid their NI contributions OR who had already had 15 weeks of NI. The dole was means tested.
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What was the special areas act and when was it introduced?
It gave £2 million to help these areas: Scotland, Tyneside, Cumberland and South Wales. It was introduced in 1934.
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How did they get payments from this?
Local authorities applied for money to be spent on 'economic development and social improvement' but it wasn't enough to solve these areas problems.
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Why did the special areas act not help all?
It was businesses that had to claim and in the worst hit areas the businesses had already all collapsed so this didn't help.
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What happened in 1937?
The special areas (amendment) act gave tax cuts and low rents to businesses that moved into special areas, but these weren't enough to convince businesses to relocate.
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In what ways was the unemployment experience the same for everyone?
You had to go to the employment exchange at least once a week, all those not on NI benefit had to go through the degrading means test.
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What did a British medical study show?
That in 1933 it cost 5s 1d to feed a person the minimum food for proper nourishment but that by 1938 44% of those on the dole could not afford this.
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In what ways were everyone's unemployment experiences different?
Would you take any work? Would you spend all day everyday looking for work? Did you have family? Did you spend in just essentials or some niceties as well?
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What did shipyard owners set up, when and why?
The National Shipbuilders' security Ltd in 1930 in order to 'rationalise' the industry, making it mor efficient.
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What did this mean in practice?
It meant buying up shipyards, closing them and selling them off, or renting, the land.
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Where is jarrow?
In Tyneside and part of the special areas act.
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Where did almost all people in jarrow work and what happened to it?
At palmers shipyard but in 1934 the NSS closed palmers.
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What did this do to unemployment?
By 1935 unemployment was 64%
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What happened in 1936?
The National unemployed workers' movement, a communist organisation, organised a national hunger march to London.
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How did the government respond to this?
They opposed saying that they would not be pressurised into acting.
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What was the jarrow crusade?
The members of jarrow town council, from all political parties, planned a march and marched in it.the marchers were 200 of jarrow fittest men to show that they wanted and were fit enough for work, they took a petition signed by over 1000 people.
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What opposition was there to the march?
The NUWM said they should just join the national march. The central Labour Party and TUC were against all hunger marches, however the labour representative in jarrow still marched.
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What were the events of the jarrow crusade?
They marched over 291 miles in 22 stages. They had an old bus to carry equipment.they would often stop for over a day to hold public meetings. Some towns supported them and helped them. Some towns made them sleep in the workhouse- the last resort.
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What was the government reaction?
Stanley Baldwin refused to accept the petition. The cabinet had issued a statement disproving of all marches. They stopped their benefits whilst on the march. Parliament accepted the petition but did not debate it.
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What were they gains from the march?
Several marchers were offered work outside of jarrow (all but one refused). Some steel works were opened in jarrow but it only employed 200 men and gave the gov. an excuse to ignore jarrow.
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What was the jarrow legacy?
Many marchers felt that it had failed as it did not achieve its aim but the crusade became a legend, a byword for public protest.
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What happened in the 1st September 1939?
The German army invaded poland.
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What had been happening before this?
Britain and France tried to avoid war by accepting their braking of the treaty of Versailles and its invasion of czechoslovakia. This was known as appeasement
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What happened after this?
It became clear appeasement was not working, so Britain and France declared war on Germany.
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What did they expect to happen?
They expected Germany to try and invade France so as soon as war broke out, the British expeditionary force was sent to France.
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What happened by may 1940?
It had 394165 troops defending this border but when the German attack came it supprised them by its speed and its direction, the BFF tried to fight against it but were forced to retreat.
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Who was Churchill?
He was an MP who constantly criticised the gov. Appeasement policy before the war.
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What did the gov do as a result?
When war broke out he was put in charge of the navy and then on 10 may 1940 he was made prime minister.
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How was Churchill good at this?
He had a great ability to inspire people to keep going in the fight against Germany, which was particularly important after France fell.
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What happened on 9 April 1940?
Germany invaded Norway and Denmark, both neutral countries, without declaring war first.
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What happened on 10 may?
It launched operation yellow, the invasion of Europe.
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What was germanys new military tactic and how did it work?
'Blitzkrieg' it followed the pattern: 1) bomb the area to be occupied 2) tanks move in and take over area 3) German troops move in 4) planes and tanks move on, leavening troops to occupy the area.
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Why did it work?
It gave the countries little time to prepare for invasion, it was unexpected, terrifying and very effective.
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What did it force troops to do?
Evacuate France from Dunkirk.
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What happened on 21 may 1940?
the first retreating allied troops reached Dunkirk, the only French port not held by the Germans.
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What made this more difficult?
Its long, shallow beach would make it hard to evacuate from.
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When did operation dynamo begin and what was it?
26 may, the gov. asked small boats to go to Dunkirk and ferry soldiers to big ships, by may 29 about 300 boats were doing this.
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When did they do this until and how many troops were brought home?
Until 4 June about 338000
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what happened on the 22 June 1940?
France surrendered and Hitler turned to Britain.
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what was operation sea lion and what did it rely on?
it was the invasion of Britain and it relied on destroying the RAF so it could attack invading troops.
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what was the battle of Britain?
the battles between the RAF and the luftwaffe for control of the air over Britain, and it was fought over many months.
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what were the four stages of the battle of Britain?
10 July- 7 August: Luftwaffe attacks on British coast, especially radar bases. 8 August- 6 September: Luftwaffe attacks on airfields. 7-15 September: thinking RAF beaten attack London. 15 Sept: Luftwaffe defeated.
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Why did Britain win?
July 1940: Britain 640 planes, Germany 2600 planes. However the RAF also had: a radar system so they could see them coming, while the germans had more bombers, we had more fighters and spitfires so we were better in the air, we had 'Dunkirk spirit'
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What happened on the 7 december 1941?
The Japenese, allies of Germany, bombed the US naval base at pearl harbour, Hawaii.
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What happened as a result?
The USA, which had only been sending money and supplies to Britain, enterred the war against Germany and Japan.
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What did the USA want to happen after this?
They did not want to fight in Europe and the Pacific for long and the Pacific was where they wanted to be, so they made a plan for the quick invasion of Europe. The British coninced the USA that it had to be carefully planned.
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What happened in August 1942?
a raid on Dieppe showed the problems of trying to capture a french port from the Germans. Over 3000 troops were killed and a destroyer was sunk. It was then clear that a lot of air support was needed for D-day.
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What did Operation Overload involve?
They chose to land on Normandy but leaked information suggesting they were landing elsewhere. They had to land as many troops as possibke as quick as possible. Scientists invented floating harbours called mulberries.
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What did operation overload involve (continued)
Pluto, a pipeline system was set up to get fuel across. By the end of June the Allies had enough troops ready for the landings on 4000 landing crafts. Over 250warships and 11000 planes were to support the invasion.
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why did the day of the invasion often change?
The allies needed good weather conditions, enough troops ready in south england and enough of the luftwaffe destroyed so they werent as big of a threat.
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What happened on 5 June?
various allied and french Resistance activities suggested any invasion would eb on the coast near calais, Meanwhile minesweapers cleared mines from shipping lanes all across the channel.
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What happened on the first day?
In the early morning, troop landings began, timed for low tide at all beaches. ships bombed an 80km ***** of the coastand gliders and planes started to parachute troops in. Allied planes targeted German military.
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Which of the beaches was hardest hit?
Omaha beach was where losses were heaviest but even there troops established a position and moved inland.
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why did D-day succeed?
Careful planning and preparation. Although it was impossible to stop the germans seeing the troops coming they were confused as they didnt know where they were going to land.
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Why else did D-day succeed?
The pluto pipeline, the rapid ferrying of troops and supplies, air back up, they blew up railway lines and bridges and disrupted german communications. They had a lot of the allied troops.
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How did the allies put pressure on Germany?
They bombed industrial sites, military bases and cities. They used radar to find enemy submarines. They helped resistance groups sabotage road and rail links.
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What militarty errors did the allies make?
They failed to liberate the netherlands, unlike D-day, their plans were rushed and they underestimated german forces.
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What happened in December 1944?
The Germans launched a suprise attack through the ardennes forest in Belgium and France at the battle of the Bulge. But this time they lost, with heavy losses.
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What was clear by Apri l 1945?
that, under attack on two fronts and short of men, arms and supplies, Germany faced defeat. The allies were advancing on all sides. As the soviet troops neared Berlin, Hitler committed suicide and Gemany surrendered.
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What was the British govrnment doing as early as 1935?
Preparing for war and invasion.
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What did the gov. expect?
That as soon as war broke out then German planes would bomb Britain and try to invade.
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What was one thing that the gov. did to prepare people for war?
They made cards to go in cigarette packetsthat told people things such as how to protect their homes against bombing and what to do in a gas attack.
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What else did the gov. set up?
air-raid precautions and local warden to run them. People were given identity cards. Fittingstations fitted people with gas masks and taught them how to use them. they organised air raid shelters and practices to use them. they set up evacuation.
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What did the gov. have to do in the case of war?
keep tighter control of Britain than before.
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How did they do this?
In 1939, the ministry of supply was set up to take over iron and steel production and war production,the ministry of food was set up. The gov. took over vital services. existing ministries given more power
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How were the minestries given more power?
Minestry of labour organised armed forces and the war effort on the home front, The minestry of inforamtion controlled the inforamtion that people were given and kept them informed about rationing and other gov. requirements.
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What happened in 1937?
The gov. told local concils to build air rade centres and set up the Air-Raid Precautions (ARP) service, with voluntary ARP wardens.
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By September 1939 how many ARP wardens were there?
over 1.5 million
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What did the wardens do?
They put sandbags around buildings to stop bomb damage, put up huge barrage ablloons to stop German planes flyinglow, They organised the 'blackout/: stopping lights showing after dark, They checked people had shelters.
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What did ARP wardens do when bombing began?
They called the emergency services: Fire bragade, Heavy Rescue Squads and the ambulance service.
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What happened on 14 May 1940?
the war minister, Anthony Eden, asked for volunteers for a Local Defence Force. He expected about 150000 volunteers; there were 250000 on the first day.
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How many people were there in the LDF in August?
About 1 million, they were renamed the Home Guard.
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What did the home guard do?
they manned anti-aircraft guns during air raids, over 1000 people were killed on this duty during the war. They helped rescue workers, They removed or painted over road and station signs, They put obstacles in fields, They made safe unexploded bombs.
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What was their most important role?
They trained for a German invasion.
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What lead to London children being evacuated before war broke out?
The government was sure that the Germans would bomb British cities, especially London.
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What did the gov. do from 1938 onwards?
They encouraged people to think about evacuation.
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What did most children do?
Were evacuated by train or bus with their schools.
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What happened on 1 September 1939?
The evacuation began for real, In the first fout days, 3 million people were evacuated, most of them children.
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What happened in December?
There had been no bombing so people thought it was safe to go home for christmas.
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What is the Blitz?
The name given to the bombing of British cities by the Luftwaffe from 7 September 1940 to May 1941. (It overlapped with the battle of Britain)
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What were the raids like at first?
They started off during the day.
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How did this change and why?
They witched to night time bombing because the losses during the day were too high.
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How was the Blitz different from previous raids?
The Blitz targeted civilians whereas normal raids targetted military and industrial areas.
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Why did they do this?
They thought that intense bombing would wreck British moral so people would stop supporting the war and not do war workor follow black outs or co-operate at all which would force surender.
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Where was there bombing?
16 British cities,fro mGlasgow to Plymouth and From Swansea to Hull. Liverpool was bombed to cut links with USA, London was bombed first, most often and most heavily, It was bombed 75 out of the first 76 nights of bombing.
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What were the effects of the Blitz?
The gov. tried to prepare people but did not imagine the scale. Over 43000 civilians killed and over 2 million people homeless. Infrastructure destroyed. People lost a lot of sleep, few got more than 4 hours a night.
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Did the Blitz work?
It caused a lot of damage and destruction. It caused a seconf evacuation. Moral was weakened and some people did dispair winning the war but people kept going. The Blitz failed in its main objective, the British people did not turn against the war.
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What did they do after the Blitz on London?
The RAF bombed German cities too, Civilians on both sides were 'getting it'- as the British often referred to the bombing.
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What happened on 8 November 1940?
The RAF bombed Munich
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what happened on the 14 November?
the Luftwaffe bombed coventry in retaliation, in a raid so destructive that a new word came into use: 'coventration'- wiping something out completely.
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What were the events of the Coventry Blitz?
The bombing began at 7:20 pm, Bombs were dropped into the city centre to start firesto guide bombers later, hours later it was up in flames and could be seen 150 miles away. The bombing went on all night- 500 bombers dropped thousands of bombs.
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The events of the coventry blitz continued...
The 'all clear' did not sound until 6:15 the next morning, It killed between 380 and 554 people and there were thousands of injuries, over 4000 homes were destroyed. the Luftwaffe returned to coventry 40 times.
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What happened in april 1942?
The German Luftwaffe started to bomb new targets of smaller towns with no military importance.
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What were these raids called and why?
The Baedeker raids because the Germans were said to have chosen their targets from towns with 3 stars in the German Baedeker tourist guide to Britain.
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Where were the big Baedeker raids in April?
Exeter, Bath, York and Norwich.
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What did the Luftwaffe do in June?
They bombed cantebury after the RAF bombed cologne.
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What losses did the Luftwaffe suffer in the January raids?
They lost a bomber and 4 trained crew for every 5 civilians killed.
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So what did the Germans do to reduce these loses?
They looked for new ways to bomb Britain from a distance, German scientists formed a flying bomb called the Vergeltung (V1), they were driver by a motor that was supposed to cut out over the target.
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Where were V1's launched from and when were they first launched?
From the coast of France and 12 June 1944.
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How many V1 were launched?
Over 9000 but many failed to reach their targets and many failed to explode.
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What were the effects of the V1?
They killed about 6000 and did cause panic at first- 1.5 million people left London.
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What happened in September?
The V2 was used, It was rocket powered, so faster and could go higher, although it had no more explosives so caused no more damage.
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How many were launched, how many reached Britain and how many people did they kill?
Over 5000 were launched, but only 1000 reached Britain, killing about 2700 people.
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What was the most important Ministry of Inforation work?
Propaganda and censorship, The aim was to stop information getting out that would encourage the enemy to demoralise the people.
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What did they censor?
They told magazines and Newspapers what pictures they could use, they censored letters going abroad and incoming letters.
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What is propaganda?
Giving people information in order to make them think or behave in a particular way.
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What propaganda did the MOI use?
Posters and Leaflets, How to... films, Patriotic short films and newsreels ans talks on the radio.
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How much food did Britain import before the war?
55 million tonnes a year, 70% of all the food that people bought.
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When did the ministry of food start planning food control?
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What had happened by January 1940?
German submarines had sunk over 100 ships carrying food to Britain.
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When did rationing begin?
8 January 1940
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What were the three kinds of rationing?
Rationing of foods like butter by weight. Rationinf dried goods (flour, biscuits, cereal) and tinned foods on a points system. Gov. control of foods like orange juice and milk, where babies, pregnant women and the sick were given them first.
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What did the Minestry of food encourage people to do?
Grow their own food and keep chickens and rabbits.
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what else happened to help with rationing?
Local parks were turned into allotments to grow crops, even the moat around the tower of london was dug and planted. People joined 'pig clubs'.
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What else did the ministry of food do?
broadcast recipes and tips for making food go further
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What happened with food that was not planned?
People swapped food with neighbours, shopkeepers favoured regular customers, A 'black market' grew where you couls buy rationed goods at high prices.
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What happened when huge amounts of men went into the armed forces?
At first, large numbers of unemployed men took up their jobs.
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What else happened in July 1939?
The government reformed the womens land army, it knew that it would need to clear and farm more land.
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What were the figures by March 1940?
30000 men had left farming for the army and 15000 for other work, It quickly became clear that women were needed for all types of war work.
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Where else did women work?
Heavy industry, the services and some were conscripted.
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How did women feel working in industry?
At first many women were nervous of the big machinery but once they learnt what to do they grew in confidence and many women enjoyed the work.
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What women were conscipted?
At first conscription was just for unmarried women aged 20-30 but as the war went on, older single women and then married women were also conscripted.
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Could women only be conscripted or could they join the armed forced of their own accord?
They could join by choise and many did, by 1943 there were over 100000 women on the railways alone.
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What were the womens sections of the armed forces?
the ATS (army), the WAAF (airforce) and the WRNS (navy).
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How did the type of work they did change?
At first their work was entirely cooking, cleaning or office work or were trained as drivers. As the war progressed they worked on anti-aircraft posts, as radio operators, as motorbike messengers or even spies.
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How did work and the workforce change when the war ended?
Millions of men and women were discharged from the services and needed to find normal jobs, Women had to give up jobs to men, however the general opinion about women working did change.
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Why did many people in Britain consider 1945 to be the end of the war?
Hitler was beaten, the threat of bombing had been lifted and people began to look to the future.
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Why was an election called?
Although churchill wanted to keep the coalition going until they had defeated Japan, The labour party and liberals wanted an election at once. Many conservatives wanted an election too as the war in Europe had ended.
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When was the election called?
on 23 May 1945 chuchill resigned and the election was set for 5 July.
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Who were the main contenders in the election?
the conservatives and the labour party.
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What were their different strategies?
Conservaties focused on Churchill and the war- not the party or the future. Labour focused on the future and promised reform.
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Why did the conservatives lose?
Many people didnt trust their promise of reform. Many people remembered the dark days of the depression in the 1930s and the attitudes of the conservatives. Labour had laid out policies for change.
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What did churchill do that lost them the election?
In his first election broadcast he made a huge mistake. He warned people that labours socialist policies were dangerous, He said that they would have to have a Gestappo and therefor churchill was comparing the Labour party to the Nazis.
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What was released on 1 December 1942?
Ernest Beveridge (The minister of labour) released the Beveridge report.
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What were reactions to this?
Many Mps disagreed strongly with its recomendations, but it had a huge amount of public support. It sold over 70000 copies in the first few days.
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What did the Beveridge report say?
It said the state should support citizens 'from cradle to grave' and had to fight 'five giants'
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What were the 'five giants'?
Want: the lack of basic needs such as food. Ignorance: the lack of a proper education for all. Disease: the lack of rpoper medical care for all. Squalor: poor living conditions. Idleness: unemployment.
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How did the Labour party fight Want?
1945 Family allowance act: 5s a week for each child after the first. 1946 NI act: Workers pay 4s11d and so do employers, gov. provides benefit to unemployed. 1946 National assistance act: helps homeless, disabled and mentally ill.
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How did the Labout party fight Ignorance?
1944 education act: Free education up to 14. 1947 Education act: Free education up to 15.
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How did the Labour party fight Disease?
1946 NHS act: Free medical, dental and eye care for all. 1947 NHS act: charges on prescriptions. 1947 NHS act: charges on some services.
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How did the Labout party fight Squalor?
1946 New Towns act: 17 new towns built in England and 4 enlarged hugely, 5 towns in Scotland and 1 in Wales, Huge local authoriy house building programme- by Sept. 1948 750000 new homes built.
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How did the Labour party fight Idleness?
From 1945: Gov building schemes provided work.
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Which was the hardest reform for Labour to introduce?
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What did the British Medical Association do?
fought gov. reforms, such as the 1911 free health care for those on NI, fought all changes to make healthcare free.
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How did this change when Labour came to power in 1945?
The new Minister of Health wanted to carry out Beveridges recomendations.
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How did he do this?
He set up comitees to consult with the BMA. Whilst this was going on he pushes through the NHS act despite BMA protest.
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When was the Act introduced?
The date was set for January 1948, Disputes with the BMA delayed this to April 1948 and it wasnt until July 1948 that the NHS actually started providing free services.
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How did people use the NHS at first?
People couldnt believe that healthcare was going to be free so they rished to use it.
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What did this mean?
That they badly underestimated how much it would cost.
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What things were most popular?
Glasses and false teeth, but the Medicine bill was also high.
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As a result what happened?
In 1949 the gov. was debating introducing charges and the NHS act of 1949 introduced a cost of 1-shilling per prescription.
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When did the new NHS act come into force?
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What did Bevan do as a result?
He disagreed and resigned as health minister.
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What happened in 1951?
Another act put a charge of 1-shilling towards the cost of glasses or half the cost of false teeth.
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Other cards in this set
What did national insurance cover?
If work dried up, the fund paid benefit for up to 15 weeks.
What did the government set up in November 1918?
Why was the dole set up?
What did women have to do after the war?