Historian's interpretations of the period 1900-1945

I copied most of these from Layton, and I hope that they are all accurate & useful for the part A questions.

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Who emphasises the power & personality of the Kaiser in any interpretations of the Second Reich
Röhl
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What are the arguments in favour of Röhl's argument?
The Zabern Affair, the constitutional powers that he was given, such as the ability to dismiss the Reichstag at any time.
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What are the criticisms to Röhl's argument?
The Kaiser was lazy, more keen on military maneuvers than governing, and he was undeniably erratic.
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Which school of history, and which historian spearheads the interpretation that the conservative elites held most of the power in the Second Reich?
Structuralist historians, notably Wehler, argue that the vacuum created by Bismarcks departure was filled by a combination of Prussian Junkers and the army, which amalgamated into Sammlungspolitik
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Arguments in favour of Wehler's argument?
The Prussian chamber of deputies had 17 deputies, above the 14 needed to veto legislation, in the Zabern Affair the Kaiser listened to the army rather than the governor of Alsace-Lorraine.
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Describe how the Prussian bundesrat elections add weight to Wehler's interpretation of the Second Reich.
They were unfairly weighted because of the three class suffrage system, in 1912 the conservatives received 14% of the vote and 212 seats, whereas the SPD received 43% and were given 7 seats
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Criticisms of Wehler's argument?
It exaggerates the unity of purpose of the elites, Röhl would argue that their power only came from the Kaiser, and Eley would criticise this through his theory "from below".
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Name the last interpretation of the power structure of the Second Reich which emphasises the power of the voters.
The school is "history from below" and it is spearheaded by Eley and Blackbourn, who argue that the increase of voters (from 50% in 1870 to 85% by 1912) shows that their voices must have been heard.
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Further evidence in favour of Eley and Blackbourn's argument?
In the 1908 Daily Telegraph Affair the Kaiser was held accountable to the Reichstag for his actions, and in 1911 Alsace-Lorraine was given a constitution.
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Arguments that the Kaiserreich was authoritarian?
The chancellor was only accountable to the Kaiser, they had an unfair federal structure as Prussia covered two thirds of Germany, and the Prussian chamber of deputies constantly exerted their power.
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Arguments that the Kaiserreich was not authoritarian?
They had freedom of press, expression and assembly, and males above 25 had universal suffrage (better than Britain), and the Reichstag could endorse or reject legislation.
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Who would argue that the left wing was the greatest threat to the Weimar Republic?
Historians who emphasise the power of the common people (i.e. history from below) because the SPD had 37.9% of the vote in 1919, and the KPD had 20% by 1920.
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Who would emphasise the power of the right wing?
Structuralists like Wehler because they emphasise the power of the conservative elites and the right wing were supported by conservative forces like the judiciary.
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Which pact attempted to resolve the threat from some of the conservative forces?
The 1920 Ebert-Groener Pact tried to diminish the threat of the army.
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Who argues that from 1925-9 Germany lived beyond its means, and had out of control spending, making the Weimar economy a "sick" economy?
Brochardt, because of the import deficit, and there were 76,000 industrial disputes between 1924-1932.
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Who argues that the German economy was temporarily off the rails, but had the potential to restablisise?
Holtfrerich, shown as the German economy kept stabilising, reaching 1913 production levels in 1928, and exports increased 40% from 1925-1929.
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What is the opinion Layton, the green textbook, on the Weimar Republic?
The Wall Street Crash of 1929 added to an already grave situation.
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How do determinists view Hitler?
As the inevitable result of German history because of Germany's character. This seriously undermines the power of the left wing throughout German history.
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What do Broszat and Mommsen blame for Hitler's rise to power?
A lack of real democratic institutions (Hindenburg's overuse of article 48, Von Papen dissolving the Prussian Reichstag...)
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What does Kershaw argue is the main factor in Hitler's rise to power?
The miscalculations of the conservative elites (thinking that they could control Hitler)
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Who argues that the German military preparations were lacking, economic mobilisation was limited (52% of women were employed in the workforce, this did not change) as the German economy was only focused on a blitzkrieg?
Klein
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Who argues that even though German wanted a blitzkrieg, no nation had spent so much on military preparations before?
Milward
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What does Mason argue about the German war economy? (He is a marxist historian)
The Nazi economy was already under strain, the balance of trade was in red, the govt. deficit was growing quickly so Hitler embarked on war to solve these domestic issues.
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Which statistics boost Milward's argument?
Rations were well balanced, in 1942 everyone got an extra 200 grammes of meat in christmas.
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What is Overy's interpretation of the wartime economy?
Hitler stumbled into war, his war preparations would only be complete in 1943 and the war in Poland was meant to be a local war. He had achieved full employment, but 25% of this was focused on rearmament.
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What is Dachowitz's argument about the evolution of the Holocaust?
She holds a strong intentionalist stance, quoting that Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf that "Hebrew corrupters of the people should have been held under poison gas"
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Therefore, what does Dachowitz think Hitler was doing throughout the 20s and 30s?
Simply waiting for his time to follow a "grand design" or "programme of annihilation" of his Weltanschauung (world view)
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Issues with Dachowitz's interpretation?
Mein Kampf has over 600 pages, and one sentence should not be exaggerated.
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How does Schleunes view the evolution of the Holocaust?
He claims that there was a "twisted path" towards the Holocaust.
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What does Flemming (a intentionalist) argue about the Holocaust?
There was a "strategic plan" which was simply waiting interpretation.
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How does Broszat interpret the evolution of the Holocaust?
He argues that Hitler never gave a "comprehensive general extermination orders" and the antisemitic policy led to people taking the initiative form below, which evolved into the Final Solution (e.g. Heydrich)
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What does Mommsen blame the Holocaust on?
Cumulative radicalisation.
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What does Browning argue (a major objective to the strong structuralist position)
That it is unlikely that, independent of Hitler's antisemitism, the directive of the Final Solution somehow evolved.
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An objection to the importance of the Wannsee Conference?
Goering's diary writes a few sentences on the Wannsee Conference in a relatively long diary entry. Also, they arranged the Final Solution in an hour and a half.
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What do moderate intentionalists focus on?
Hitler's 1939 Prophecy Speech
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How do extreme functionalists interpret the cause of the cause of the Holocaust?
In a bottom down approach
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What is Kershaw's synthasis
A combination of radical pressures combined with Hitler's lack of plan, but Hitler still provided the driving force, he was "necessary but not sufficient" and provided the momentum
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The Zabern Affair, the constitutional powers that he was given, such as the ability to dismiss the Reichstag at any time.

Back

What are the arguments in favour of Röhl's argument?

Card 3

Front

The Kaiser was lazy, more keen on military maneuvers than governing, and he was undeniably erratic.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Structuralist historians, notably Wehler, argue that the vacuum created by Bismarcks departure was filled by a combination of Prussian Junkers and the army, which amalgamated into Sammlungspolitik

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The Prussian chamber of deputies had 17 deputies, above the 14 needed to veto legislation, in the Zabern Affair the Kaiser listened to the army rather than the governor of Alsace-Lorraine.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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