Henry VIII reign, (part 1)

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Was Henry VIII accession popular, if so why?
Yes, marked the unification of the House of York and Lancaster, also marking the end of years of mistrust and financial oppression during his fathers reign
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Why was he a Renaissance Prince
Became familiar with new humanist ideas, developments in education , drama and music, and new art and architecture.
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What is the code of chivalry, and how did it affect his reign
Meant performing valiant deeds and showing strength and power. This could be in jousting or warfare. This belief heavily influenced Henry’s foreign policy
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How much money did Henry inherit from his father
£300,000
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What did he do with this money
Was spent in the early stages of his reign to fund his aggressive foreign policy, especially towards France and Scotland.
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Give an example of an invasion he spent the money on
Invasion of France in 1512: 10,000 troops deployed to assist the Holy League who were fighting France in Northern Italy.
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How did the conciliar government end
W/ the rise of Thomas Wolsey
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Who were the leading financial enforcers in his fathers reign
Empson and Dudley of the council learned
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What happened to them in Henry VIII reign
Arrested and later executed and the council dissolved. - Marked the end of the extortionate and unpopular methods of extracting money.
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What were Henry's three key aims for his reign
Establish status amongst European monarchs -Re-establish role of nobility-Establish himself as a warrior via success in battle
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When did Henry marry Catherine of Aragon
11 June 1509
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What benefit did this alliance bring
Brought England closer to Spain. (At the time Catherine as a strong princess, daughter of the two noble houses of Spain Aragon and Castile)
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Did Henry scrap his fathers forgein policy
Yes,
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What was the difference
Henry VII’s peaceful foreign policy denied the nobility their traditional outlet of pursuit of military glory ( and stripped the nobility of most of its political influence), Henry 8 replaced it with an aggressive pursuit of military glory
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What did this policy lead to
led England to war with France multiple times during Henry’s reign.
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What affect did this have
wars would usually strain royal finances and result in painfully small gains of little or no strategic significance.
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Was Henry intrested in political work
No, allowed his council or chief minister to do uninteresting political work for him.
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When was the council learned abolished
Jan – Feb 1510
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What was the council learned
It dealt with the king's fiscal matters and enforced payments of debts.
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What two things happened between Feb 1512 – Mar 1514
Extraordinary revenue for invasion of France and Scotland. Act restricting benefit of clergy
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when was the act restraining benefit of the clergy renewed.
Feb 1515 – Dec 1515
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what two events happened between Apr 1523 – Aug 1523
Extraordinary revenue granted for invasion of France.Thomas More made first ever plea for freedom of speech.
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Reformation of parliament- when was it, and when did it end
Nov 1529 – Apr 1536
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when was the new succession law following fall of Anne Boleyn
Jun 1539 – Jul 1540
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what two events happened between Apr 1540 – Jul 1540
Call for extraordinary revenue for threatened invasion Religious legislation such as six articles Act
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what happened in Jan 1542 – Mar 1544
Extraordinary revenue for invasion of France and Scotland
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Wolsey in 1513
Dean of York. Bishop of Tourni (territory conquered in France that year)
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Wolsey in 1514
Bishop of Lincoln. Arch Bishop of York (2nd highest position of church in England)
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Wolsey in 1515
Cardinal (appointed by Pope Leo X).Lord Chancellor of Henry’s Gov
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Wolsey in 1518
Appointed Papal Legate (allowed to deputise for Pope and exercise papal powers)
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Lord Chancellor- what was he responsible for
responsible for overseeing legal system. Had right to be in the position of authority over the Court of Chancery.Tried to use the court to uphold fair justice
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What did the Court of Star Chamber become
became the center of both gov and justice under Wolsey
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What did Court of Comittee do
deal with cases involving the poor.
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What did the Court of Star Chamber do
tried to use the Court of Star Chamber to increase cheap and fair justice. Dealt with cases involving the misconduct of dominant figures in localities.
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How did Wolsey reform the Tudor subsidy
replaced the current collections system with a national committee led by himself that would investigate the populations wealth and who could afford to pay the subsid
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How much did he get from this during 1522-23
£200,000
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Why was this not enough
period of inflation and expensive foreign policy.
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What did Wolsey impose on 1523 for tax
flexible tax (a subsidy) (parliament passed it)
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What did this impose on people
one shilling in the pound of land worth £50, and one shilling in the pound for personal savings.
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Did this raise enough
No
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What did Wolsey do then
Tudor subsidy did not raise as much as was hoped leading Wolsey to levy a tax on the Church.
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What happend in 1525
the extraordinary revenue raised for the invasion of France was insufficient leaving Wolsey to introduce the amicable grant.
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What did this grant lead to
almost led to full scale rebellion.
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Was Wolsey successful in dealing w/ parliament
not very effective when dealing with parliament especially on financial matters as he failed to gain sufficient extraordinary revenue in 1525 from parliament. This led to him having to impose a heavy tax without parliament’s approval.
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What was introduce in 1526
Eltham Ordinances
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What did these do
Reform of the finances of the Privy Council in order to reduce royal household expenditure. Reduced number of Gentlemen. Replaced Henry’s Groom of the Stool Sir William Compton with more compliant Henry Norris
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What did Henry argue that would allow his annulment
justified oin the basis that the Book of Leviticus forbids a man marrying his brother’s widow.
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What did Wolsey do as Papal legate in 1527
brought Henry before a fake court, to accuse him of living in sin. Henry admitted to the claims.
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What did Catherine do in reposne
did not accept the verdict of the court and appeal the Pope in accordance with cannon law.
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Who was Cardinal Campeggio
sent by the pope to hear the case. (1529)
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What did the Cardinal do, and how did this affect Wolsey's fate
Campeggio adjourned the hearing the next month. The adjournment sold Wolsey’s fate
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What happeed on the 4th Novermber 1529
Wolsey arrested for praemunire
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When was Cromwell appointed Chief minister
1532
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Why was he appointed t this role
had a plan that would secure Henry’s marriage annulment and end the Kings Great Matter.
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What was this plan
suggested that Henry break with Rome and establish himself as the Head of the Church of England.
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Card 2

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Why was he a Renaissance Prince

Back

Became familiar with new humanist ideas, developments in education , drama and music, and new art and architecture.

Card 3

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What is the code of chivalry, and how did it affect his reign

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How much money did Henry inherit from his father

Back

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Card 5

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What did he do with this money

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