Henry VIII - Government

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What was the title of the poem Henry VIII wrote about his enjoyment of his leisurely lifestyle?
'Passtyme with Good Companye'
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It is widely regarded that Henry did not have the work ethic of his father, or the detailed interest in government. He did however have a habit on swooping in when he wished to alter policy. Give 2 examples of this.
1) In 1525 -26 Henry VIII forced Wolsey to abandon the Amicable Grant 2) 1540 Henry refused the marriage to Anne of Cleves Cromwell had brokered for him.
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What years did the conciliar operate under Henry VIII?
1509-1514, 1529-1532 and 1540-1547
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Unlike his father, Henry streamlined the council down to ........... permanent men
Around 20
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What were 2 positives of the conciliar government under Henry VIII from 1509-1514?
1) Council allowed Henry to focus on building a magnificent court in the early years 2) The decision to investigate Empson and Dudley and have them executed in 1510 distanced Henry VIII from the issues of his fathers reign.
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What were 3 negatives of the conciliar government?
1) The young and impulsive Henry clashed with his more conservative councillors ( he would become frusterated with their anti-war attitude) 2) The men of his Privy Chamber exacerbated Henry's dislike for his councillors 3) Rule by council was complex
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What is one reason why rule by council was complex?
It involved getting policies past the 'Course of the Seals' - this involved getting documents stamped by a series of different men before something could be put into action.
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Before the 1530's there was little to suggest that Henry VIII's view of the role of parliament differed from that held by his father. What were its two main functions?
1) To grant extraordinary revenue to the crown 2) To pass laws. [Parliament also could also advise the monarch, though neither Henry VII nor Henry VIII, in his earlier years, sought the need to seek Parliament's advice.
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How many times (and in what years) did Henry VIII summon parliament before 1529?
4 times: 1510, 1512, 1515 and 1523
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Henry VIII only called parliament once in the years 1514-29, why was this?
Because this was the period of Wolsey's dominance and he regarded Parliament with some distaste.
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Why did Henry intitially think he could count on Wolsey?
Because Wolsey was a man of low rank and so Henry assumed he could count on his loyalty
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By 1514 Wolsey had freed Henry of 2 things. What were these things?
1) The course of seals 2) His Council
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Thomas Wolsey showed remarkable organisational skills, give 3 examples.
1) Increased justice via the court of the Chancery and the Star Chamber 2) Increased the amounts gained via subsidies (£322,099), 3) In 1520 he organised the field of the Cloth of Gold.
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What were 2 negatives of Wolsey as a minister?
1) Ministers could overstep the mark; Wolsey's Amicable Grant (1525) overstretched the Goodwill of the common sort and lead to Henry having to step in. 2) Despite his subsidies, Wolsey couldn't raise enough to restart hostilities with France.
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Why was Wolsey unpopular?
As a 'new made man' Wolsey was unpopular and seen as an upstart, he was labelled 'Alter Rex' and had poems like 'Why come ye not court?' written about him. He was a victim to court faction.
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What was Wolsey's key failure?
Despite his standing in the Catholic Church he couldn't get the divorce between Henry and Catherine.
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From what years did Thomas Wolsey play an influential role in government?
1514-29
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What was Thomas Wolsey labelled as?
Alter Rex
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What was arguably Wolsyes key punder in his downfall?
His failure to secure the divorce with Catherine of Aragon.
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How did Wolsey demonstrate his remarkable organisational skills?
1)Increased justice via the 'Court of Chancery' & 'Star Chamber' 2)Increased the amounts gained via subsidies (£322,099) 3) Field of the Cloth of Gold
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In regards to government under Henry VIII, what positives happened between the years 1529-1540?
Conciliar government - Plugged the gap left by Wolsey. Cromwell was elected a member of Privvy council in 1530. From 1529 pressure was placed upon the Pope and Clergy and Henry began to assert his ambition to control the Church of England.
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What were the negatives of the conciliar government from 1529-32?
Thomas More headed the council as Lord Chancellor. He was a conservative Catholic and Pro-Caterine with rigid ideas. He frustrated Anne Boleyn, Cromwell and other reformers at the court.
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What was the form of government from 1532-40?
Cromwell was Henry's Minister.
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What were the positives of Cromwell from 1532-40?
Cromwell took over the quest for Divorce in 1532.Placed pressure of the clergy to submit to Henry via collecting evidence of abuses from 1529 in the House of commons. Pushed for the 'Supplication of the Ordinances' in 1513.
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What were the positives of Cromwell from 1532-40? [CONT]
He pushed many Acts through parliment, achieving the Break with Rome and Royal Supremacy. Royal finances were drastically increased by the dissolution - ( Henry had ruined England's finances by going to war)
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What problems did Cromwell face? (1532-1540)
As a 'new made man' and Reformer, he made many enemies who helped bring about his downfall. He overstepped himself with some of his reforms and his attempts at creating a Protestant foreign alliance through the marriage of HVIII to Anne of Cleves.
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What was the form of governmend from 1540-1547?
Conciliar
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Outline the positives of the conciliar government from 1540-47
When restored the council was reformed. It became a 'Privvy council' with fixed membership. Operated like a corporate board. Decisions were made together with all members singing papers and letter. Henry maintained ultimate decision making.
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What negatives can be said about the Conciliar government from 1540-1547?
Dominated by catholic conservative who wished for counter-reformation. Faction developed as Henry VIII deteriorated,
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Give 3 examples of the catholic conservatives who dominated the conciliar government from 1540-47
Duke of Norfolk, Stephen Gardiner & Thomas Wriothesley.
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How was the Duke of Norfolk compromised as a result of his sons actions?
Henry Howard (Earl of Surrey) began to display the royal coat of arms for Prince Edward in his house in Norfolk as a sign that he would take power after Henry's death. He was executed fro treason.
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Card 2

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It is widely regarded that Henry did not have the work ethic of his father, or the detailed interest in government. He did however have a habit on swooping in when he wished to alter policy. Give 2 examples of this.

Back

1) In 1525 -26 Henry VIII forced Wolsey to abandon the Amicable Grant 2) 1540 Henry refused the marriage to Anne of Cleves Cromwell had brokered for him.

Card 3

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What years did the conciliar operate under Henry VIII?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Unlike his father, Henry streamlined the council down to ........... permanent men

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were 2 positives of the conciliar government under Henry VIII from 1509-1514?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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