Henry VII

What date was the Battle of Bosworth?
22nd August 1485
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What date was Henry coronation?
30th October 1485 in Westminster Abbey
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What date was Henry's first meeting with parliament?
7th November 1485
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what were the Acts of Attainder?
forfeiture of all lands of the Yorkists - took away power and gained the crown finances
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What was the act of parliament?
An act to give JP's power to question an arrest hunters and poachers - could be a form of disguise for a rebellion
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Who was the Earl of Northumberland, why was he imprisoned and when was he released?
English aristocrat - he lost his titles when his father was killed fighting the Yorkists (the Northumberland family were also Yorkist supporters) He was imprisoned after leading a group of Richard III's army but was released from prison the same year
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what was the population of England compared to that of Spain and France?
1/2 of Spain and 1/3 of France
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what was the 1st Navigation act and what year was it?
forbade English merchants loading goods onto foreign ships unless no English ships were available trade with bordeaux in gascony wine reserved exclusively for English;
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in what year was there a good harvest and how did it effect social matters
1485 and it promoted social stability
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what date did the papal disposition to marry Elizabeth of York arrive?
16th Jan 1486
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When did Henry marry Elizabeth of York?
18th Jan 1486
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What was the Lovell rising?
Viscount Lovell tried to raise an uprising in the North Riding of Yorkshire while Thomas and Humphrey Stafford tried to raise one in the Midlands. Henry sent armed force to rebels stating they have a choice between pardon or death
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when was there a 3 year truce with Scotland?
July 1486
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what date was Arthur born?
19th of September 1486
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When was Elizabeth crowned queen of England?
25th November 1486
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When was the Earl of Northumberland appointed lieutenant of the North.
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when was there a commercial treaty with Brittany?
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what happened to lesser nobles at the beginning of 1487 February
Elizabeth Woodville and few lesser nobles declared traitors. Woodville and her son put under house arrest and deprived of lands
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Who two nobles fled to the court of Margret of Burgundy and what did she provide them with?
Earl of Lincoln flees english court and reunites with Lord Lovell at the court of Margaret of Burgundy. Persuaded her to sponsor Simnel with financial assistance and 2,000 German mercenaries. Spring 1487
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When did the France first invade Brittany?
May 1487 -French invasion of Brittany- seemed as if France would gain control of Brittany to VII
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who was declared King Edward IV in Ireland in 1487?
Lambert Simnel. 24th May
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What date was the Battle of Stoke?
16th June 1487: VIIs 12,000 army led efficiently by John de Vere, Earl of Oxford. Only after 3 hours Henry was certain of victory. John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, who lead army of 8,000, killed in battle.
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What were Bonds of Good behavior and when was it?
after the Battle of Stoke field, Henry began BOGB; In theory they were loans given to nobles that would only have to be paid back if they were accused of something - encouraged them to behave
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When was the court of the Star Chamber made and for what purpose?
November - December 1487 to to ensure VII was receiving rents and rights in his personal lands. - ran by Sir Regenald Bray
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what happened to the nobles that fought at the battle of stoke.
28 nobles attainted and lands were confiscated
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when was the first anglo-french truce
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When was the anglo french truce broken and who was involved?
Winter 1488 - the same year - Brittany, Spain, Burgundy
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what was the treaty of Rendon
1489 Feb : Duchess Anne would pay for small English army of 6,000 under command of Lord Daubeney to defend Brittany
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when did Henry allie with Maxamillion I and why
Feb 1489 as he had a marraige by proxy to Henry's daughter Anne
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When was the treaty of Medina del Campo and what was it?
28th March - Ferdinand and Henry offered each other mutual protection - Arthur married Catherine of Aragon, they wouldn't harbor rebels, ended trade restrictions and decided to launch a joint invasion of France to recover England's lost territories
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what was the statute of uses?
restricted the avoidence of tax on a dead persons estate - ECONOMY
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when was the Earl of Northumberland murdered by Yorkists?
April 1489
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when was the Yorkshire rebellion and what happened?
April 1489 sparked by taxation grant for campaign in Brittany,had a bad harvest the previous year Sent a large army under Earl of Suffolk
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what was the second navigation act in 1489?
only English ships could import trade if they were available
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when was there a treaty of Denmark and what happened in it?
1490 - extend trade in the Baltic to access Scandinavian goods and Icelandic fishing waters
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what did Henry chance to the exports of cloth?
Export of unfinished cloth from England banned- English merchants could earn more by finishing the cloth. Foreign merchants banned from buying wool until English bought all they wanted
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how many knights were in England by 1490?
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what was different about workers by 1490?
Building workers and agricultural labourers better of in the 1490s than any other Tudor period.
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what did the port of Florence do to contest the change to exports of cloth?
restricted sales of wool and cloth to Venice
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When did Maxamillion I and Anne marry by proxy?
January 1491
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When was Henry VIII born?
28th of June 1491
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What did Perkin Warbeck do in 1491?
started to impersonate Richard Duke of York in Cork, Ireland, given support by Earl of Kildare (member of the Geraldines)
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how much was raised for the war in brittany in 1491?
£48,000 was raised for war in Brittany of which £9000 was contributed by the City of London
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What happened in 1492 September?
set sail for France and remained in Calais for over a month before setting out to besiege Boulogne. Launched an invasion in France - late in campaigning season
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When and what was the Treaty of Etaples?
3rd November 1492 - France agreed to pay England £5000 and they agreed to withdraw their support from Perkin Warbeck. Trade between the two countries was also restored
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in 1492, what happened to Perkin Warbeck?
Perkin Warbeck flees to Margaret of Burgundy's court where she trains him as a Yorkist Prince.
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When was Brittany 'annexed' by France?
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what happened with Burgundy in 1493?
September Trade embargo placed on the Netherlands due to fear of Marg of B's support for Perkin Warbeck. Netherlands responded with own trade emba
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what was the Hanseatic League?
A german founded trade group that dominated the trade in the time of Henry VII
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when was William Stanley executed for treason?
February 1495
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who warned Henry of Warbecks return an what happened?
3rd July 1495- Warbeck sails from Netherlands to Kent with a Small force dealt with by local authorities as Henry was warned by Sir Robert Clifford who implicated William Stanley
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what did Scotland do when Perkin Warbeck fled there?
1495 PW arrives in Scot and stays for two years - received a £112 pension and a marriage offer to Lady Catherine Gordon (king's cousin)
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what was Poynings Law
1495 Irish parliament could pass no law without prior approval of English Crown.
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what year did England join the 'Holy League' against France
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When did Warbeck cross the english/scottish boarder and what happened?
Sept 1496 - Small Scottish force (1,400 men)crossed border on PW's behalf but quickly retreated after receiving no support in Northumberland and heard of an English army making its way from Newcastle.
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how did Henry retaliate to Scotland harbouring PW
1496 PW lead Henry to raise a larger army to launch an invasion of Scotland
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what was the intercursus magnus?
Treaty between Henry and Philip of Burgundy which brought trade embargo to an end; English merchants could export to any part of Duke of Burgundy's lands apart from Flanders without paying tolls or customs and would enjoy impartial justice in local c
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What year did Kildare become loyal to Henry VII
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When did Perkin Warbeck leave Scotland?
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When was the cornish rebellion?
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What caused the Cornish rebellion?
the demand for extraordinary revenue to pay for campaign against Scot
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What happened in the Cornish rebellion?
15,000 people involved; the rebels marched on London only halted at Blackheath. Henry had to withdraw Lord Daubeney and his troops from defending Scottish border. Crushed easily enough by Daubeney and rebel leaders
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Why did Kildares loyalty pay off?
in 1497, Kildare refused to harbour Perkin Warbeck
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What happened in Perkin Warbeck's final attempt to claim the throne?
September 12th 1497 arrives at Lands End with just 120 men in two ships exploited Cornish Rebellion and garnered several thousand Cornish supporters who were unequipped and poorly led - crushed. Warbeck was allowed to stay at court
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What was the treaty of Ayton?
30th September 1497 seven year truce between England and Scotland; border wardens could execute cross border murderers after 20 days execution; couldn't harbour rebels;
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in 1498, what was Perkin Warbecks last plan?
To escape - he tried to flee with the Earl of Warwick but was captured and sent to the tower of London
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What treaty was renewed when Louis XII came ton power in France?
The Treaty of Etaples
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What date was Perkin Warbeck hanged?
November 23rd 1499
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What date was the Earl of Warwick hanged?
November 29th 1499
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What year did Phillip of Burgundy confirm the Intercursus Magnus?
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What year did Henry gain cheap control over Ireland?
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During the War of the Roses, what family had the support of Ireland?
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what did the Geraldine family do in 1492?
Recognized Perkin Warbeck as the 'King of Ireland'
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Who did Henry VII appoint Lord Lieutenant of Ireland?
Arthur and then Henry VIII
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What year did the counsel learned extend its power?
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What was the main aim of the counsel learned?
To exploit the kings prerogative rights to extend the kings finances
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What year were Catherine of Aragon and Arthur married?
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What date did Arthur die?
2nd April 1502
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When and what was the Treaty of Perpetual Peace?
24th of June 1502 - between Scotland and England, agreement of marriage between James IV and Margaret to prevent Scottish-Anglo tensions
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What date did Reginald Bray die and the emergence of Empson and Dudley?
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What year did Elizabeth of York die and how?
1503 during childbirth
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Why did Henry VII attempt to reimpose the trade embargo with Burgundy in 1503?
Earl of Suffolk's claim was taken seriously in Burgundy
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in 1504, what did the last parliament do?
limited the demand for extraordinary revenue and stated the king would not receive any more money through these means. Granted feudal aid
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what is feudal aid? (1504)
the Crown could tax tenants for knighting of eldest son, marriage of eldest daughter or to ransom a lord
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How much did Feudal Aid gain?
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In what year did Henry place a trade embargo on Antwerp markets and why?
1505 and in retaliation to Burgundian court supporting a Yorkist.
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When did Philip and Juana get shipwrecked on English territory
January 1506
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what was the Treaty of Windsor and when?
1506 Max I gave up Suffolk and he was imprisoned in the Tower; marriage between Margaret (philips sister) and VII arranged (never happened). VII recognised Juana and Philip as leaders of Castile.
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What was the intercurcus Malus and when?
1506 - signed between Henry and Philip , agreed to hand over Edmond of Suffolk on the grounds he wasn't harmed, trade was onesided towards England, treaty never fully operative in Burgundy
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When was the Earl of Suffolk handed over?
March 1506
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When did Philip of Burgundy die?
September 1506
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what happened to trade between England and Burgundy in 1507?
Trading btwn Netherlands and Eng was restored on basis of Magnus.
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What date did Henry VII die?
21st April 1509
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What did Henry VII leave Henry VIII?
In total Henry left £300,000 in plate and jewels and 10,000 in cash.
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How did Henry VII reform the crowns finances?
Total income increased to £113,000 p.a from 3,000p.a
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How did Henry VII reform trade?
Increase of over 60% of the volume of cloth exports during Vii's reign; Raw wool exports down 30%
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What changed in education from 1460-1509?
53 new grammar schools founded
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What was the result of the Acts of Attainder?
136 attainders in his reign of which 46 were reversed. 2/3 of the nobilty were under retainers
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Why was Henry VII's claim to the throne weak?
It came from his mother's side - Margaret Beaufort
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Who was Sir William Stanley?
Henry VII's stepfather - he intervened in the Battle of Bosworth - crucial moment
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What is the definition of 'Plantagenet rule'?
A french man ruling in England (Henry VII)
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In what ways did Henry VII consolidate his rule?
1. Dated his reign from 21st August 1485 - traitors, 2. 11 knighthoods, 3. Detainment of Elizabeth of York, 4. coronation before meeting with parliament ( 7th November)
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What was the 3 main functions of the counsel?
1. To advise the king, 2. to administer the realm on the kings behalf, 3. to make legal judgements
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Who are 'laymen'?
Either gentry or lawyers
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Who was John Morton?
A highly able churchman and lawyer - worked against Richard III - promoted to Archbishop of Canterbury in 1486. He became cardinal in
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What is a magnate?
A member of the higher ranks of the nobility
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What was the great counsel?
The house of commons - usually concerned itself with issues such as war or rebellions or national security
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What was Dudley's role in the Counsel Learned
exploit financial opportunities.
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What was the 'chamber'?
the private areas of the court - key department for collection of royal revenues
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What was the lord chamberlain?
an experienced nobleman - a member of the king's counsel - a personal friend of the king // administrative and political power - usually speaking for the king in official meetings organised court ceremonies
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what was the privy chamber?
the close and personal servants of the monarch - its members had direct access to him and could therefore influence them more directly
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Who was Lord Chamberlain until 1495 and what happened?
Sir William Stanley - was involved in a treasonous plot with Perkin Warbeck
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What were the two main functions of the parliament?
to pass laws and to grant taxation to the crown
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What was fifteenths and tenths?
a standard form of taxation - calculated in the fourteenth century paid in by towns and boroughs to the crown.
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What years did Henry implicate 'fifteenths and tenths'
1487, 1489-90, 1491-92 and 1497
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What are Justices of the Peace (JP's)
appointed county by county and met 4 times a year to administer justice
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Name 4 sources of Royal Finance
crown lands, other powers (e.g. Etaples), extraordinary revenue and royal prerogative
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Who was England's largest land owner?
Henry VII
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what are the 5 ranks of aristocracy ?
Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount, Baron.
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How many men were classed as nobility during the reign of Henry VII?
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What did the monarchy count on the nobility for?
Maintaining authority and building armies.
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Which two trusted lancastarians had much political influence over Henry?
Earl of Oxford, Lord Daubeney
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What are grazing rights?
a legal term referring to the right of a user to allow their livestock to feed or graze on a given area
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What was mixed farming?
a system of farming which involves the growing of crops as well as the raising of animals for livestock
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What was pastoral farming?
farming that involves the rearing of animals
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What were common rights?
the legal rights of tenants to use common lands to keeping animals
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What were 'merchants of the staple'?
controlled the export of wool based in Calais
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What was the merchant adventures?
trading association that came to dominate London's cloth trade with Antwerp
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What was the purpose of the Navigation Acts?
to encourage English shipping by ensuring that only English ships could carry certain products to and from English ports
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Theoreticcally, what church did ALL of the English people belong to?
The Catholic Church - under the juristriction of the Catholic church in Rome
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What did the church do to benefit the lives of English commoners?
offered guilds and confraternities, employment opportunities and charity work
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what does 'erastian view' mean?
The view that the state should have authority over the church
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What was the realtionship between Henry VII and The Pope?
The king was firmly in control while the pope was generally eager to grant favors to the king
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What did the church provide to the king?
A framework for governing how one thought, reasoned and behaved.
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What are the seven sacraments needed to get into heaven and acquire grace?
baptism, confirmation, marriage, anointing of the sick, penance, holy orders, eucharist
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What is transubstantiation?
The process of turning the bread and wine into the blood and body of the lord.
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