Heat treatments of metals

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Annealing
Heating a metal which has been work hardened to the point where the crystals grow, making the metal softer and more ductile. 'Soaking' the metal at an appropriate annealing temp allows the crystals to reshape, relieving internal stresses.
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Hardening
Moving the carbon structure of a metal out of its normal position to change the strength and hardness. Conducted by heating the metal to red and then rapidly quenching, then tempering to remove brittleness.
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Tempering
Removes brittleness in work-hardened metals; relieving the stresses of internal molecules and letting them relax. Heated to a correct tempering colour and then cooled.
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Quenching
The rapid cooling of a metal after heat treatment.
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Normalising
Heat treatment applied to steels to make the crystals smaller and more uniform; making the metal tougher and stronger. The material is heated to the point where the structure begins to change and the heat is maintained until all crystals realign.
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Case hardening
Increases the hardness of steels with insufficient carbon content; adding carbon to the outer surface leaving a hard skin and tough core. Heating a steel component in a carbon rich environment; allowing carbon atoms to enter the steel's structure.
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Carburising
A type of case hardening whereby the component is placed in a ceramic box packed with carbon-rich material and heating for a predetermined length of time to ensure the correct 'thickness' carbon skin is achieved. Heating to 760deg. then quenched.
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Nitriding
Immersing a component in a hardening medium (nitrogen) for a specified length of time whilst being heated to around 500deg. Special steels are case-hardened in this way.
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Card 2

Front

Moving the carbon structure of a metal out of its normal position to change the strength and hardness. Conducted by heating the metal to red and then rapidly quenching, then tempering to remove brittleness.

Back

Hardening

Card 3

Front

Removes brittleness in work-hardened metals; relieving the stresses of internal molecules and letting them relax. Heated to a correct tempering colour and then cooled.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The rapid cooling of a metal after heat treatment.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Heat treatment applied to steels to make the crystals smaller and more uniform; making the metal tougher and stronger. The material is heated to the point where the structure begins to change and the heat is maintained until all crystals realign.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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