heart & transport in animals quesions

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  • Created by: sarah
  • Created on: 25-04-14 13:52
why can some smaller organisms survive with open systems?
the blood does not need to be under high pressure as animals are less active and the blood doesn't travel as far. also sometimes the blood doesn't carry oxygen or co2 so it doesn't need to travel quickly (hemplymph)
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how is does the fluid travel around the body in open systems?
dorsal vessel pumps blood either by its heart chambers, or by peristalsis, and fluid will either get to organs by open ended vessels
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what is the difference between a single and a double circulatory system?
double system -blood passes through the heart two time in one full circulation of the body
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why can some animals survive with single circulatory systems?
there blood can be at a lower pressure because they are less active, and do not need to maintain body temperature
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what are the advantages of a double circulatory system?
blood can flow faster and more efficiently to all parts of the body as it is under high pressure
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what is the direction of flow through a human heart?
deoxigenated blood travels into the right atrium, to the right ventricle, to the lungs. oxygenated blood flows from them left atrium to the left ventricle and to body tissues
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what is the name of the valves between the atrium and the ventricles?
Atrioventricularvalves
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what is the name of the thing that separates the left from the right side of the heart?
septum
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what is the name of the valves as the blood leaves the heart
semilunar valves
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why is the left side of the heart thicker than the right side?
the blood leaving the left ventricle needs to be under higher pressure as it needs to pump to the whole body . And so muscule needs to be stronger
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what do tendinous cords do?
stop the valves from failing
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what makes the sound of the heart?
first sound (lub) is the atrioventricular valves closing and the second sund (dub) is the semilunar valves closing
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what happens during atrial systole?
the SAN node receives a signal from brain(or adrenalin) wich causes it to release electrical impulses witch spread across to the left and right atrial muscles causing them to contract.
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what does the SAN stand for?
sino-atrial node
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why does blood move from the atrium to the vertical?
the pressure in the ventricles is less then that in the atrium, (as elastic tissue in ventricle walls have recoiled), and so the blood moves from the high pressure to the low pressure, opening the atrioventricular valves
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what is sinus rhythm?
normal beating of the heart
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why does the electrical impulse from the SAN travel directly to the ventricles?
there is non-conducting tissue at the bottom of the atrium to prevent this
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what happens during ventricular systole?
there is a delay while the ventricles fill and then the AVN (witch has just received a signal from SAN) sends a new electrical impulse down the purkin tissue to the ventricular muscles causing them to contract
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what is the atrioventricular bundle?
a collection of purkin tisuue (sight of AVN node)
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what happens during diastole?
heart muscles relax as elastic tissue recoils
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why desn't blood move back into the atrium when ventricles contract?
the upwards movement of blood causes the pockets in ventricular valves fill, closing them and preventing blood from retearning
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what are the letters on an electrocardiogram?
P,Q,R,S,T
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what does Myogenic mean?
refers to a contraction initiated by the myocyte cell itself instead of an outside occurrence or stimulus such as nerve (cardiac mussel)
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what is fibrillation?
irregular pumps of the heat not syncronised
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what is the SAN also known as?
the pace maker
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what is used to monitor the electrical activity of the heart?
an electrocardiogram
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what does wave P on an electrocardiogram show?
the excitation of the atria
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what does QRS on an electrocardiogram show?
the excitation of the ventricles
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what dies T show
Diastole
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what can an ECG tell us?
heart beating irregularly, if in fibrillation, or if having a heart attack
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what is the function of elastic fibers in the arteries, and veins?
allows it to stretch and recoil to with stand high pressure when heart beats
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what is the function of soothe muscle in the arteries, and veins?
can contract and constrict reducing lumen to reduce blood flow maintaining high blood pressure
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what gives arteries and veins strength?
protein on the outside called colagen
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what is the walls of a capillary called?
endothelium
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what are the properties of the arteries that help them to function?
small lumen to maintain high blood pressure, and thick smooth muscle and elastic fibers to withstand and maintain high BP
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what are the properties of the veins that help them to function?
large lumen to ease the flow, valves witch prevent backflow
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what are the properties of the capileries that help them to function?
small lumen to squeeze RBC helping oxygen diffuse (also because they are one cell thick)
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what cells can be found in the blood?
erythrocytes (RBC's), Leucocytes (WBC), platelets
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what cells are found in tissue fluid
some phagocytes (WBC's)
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what cells can be found in the lymph system
lymphocytes (WBC's)
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what protiens can be found in the blood?
hormones and plasma protiens
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what proteins can be found in tissue fluid?
some hormones and other proteins that are secreted by body cells
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can proteins be found in lymph system?
some may be
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are there fats transported in the blood?
some are transported as lipoproteins
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are there fats in the tissue fluid?
no
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are there fats in the lymphatic system?
yes some are absorbed directly from small intestine
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is there more glucose in the blood or lymphatic system?
blood (absorbed by tissues)
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are there more amino acids in the blood or tissue fluid?
blood (absorbed by tissues)
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is there more oxygen in the blood or the lymph?
blood (absorbed by tissues)
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is there more CO2 in the blood or the lymph?
Lymph (released by tissues)
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what happens at the lymph nodes?
filter for foreign material and pathogens
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what is hydrostatic pressure?
pressure in the arterial end of capillaries caused by the contraction of the heart.
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what causes the net flow of fluid out of capileries at arterial end?
the force of the liquid out by hydrostatic pressure is greater than flow of fluid in by osmosis )
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what causes the net flow of fluid in to capileries at venal end?
the water potential is lower (as more water is lost) so inflow by osmosis has increased, and hydrostatic pressure has decreased with distance from heart, so net flow in
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what is the structure of haemoglobin?
4 subunits each containing a polypeptide chain and a heam group
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what is the heam group found in heamoglobin?
Fe 2+ (iron)
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what is association?
oxygen binding to hemoglobin to become oxiheamoglobin
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what is the opposite of association?
dissociation
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why is the start of the oxyheamoglobin dissociation curve got a low gradient?
at low oxygen tension heamoglobin does not readily take up oxygen (heam groups are in the center of molecule). this means a higher concentration of oxygen is needed before it reaches a certain percentage saturation
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why does the gradient of the oxyheamoglobin dissociation curve increase rapidly in the middle
after the first oxygen has asociated with the heam group, a confromational change occurs wich makes ot easier for the next two oxygen to bind (oxygen partial pressure does not have to increase that much to see a rapid increase in %saturation)
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why is the oxyheamoglobin dissociation curve of fetal heamoglobin to the left of parent one?
fetal heamoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen, there for for the same partial pressure it can have a higher % saturation
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what effect does the "bohr effect" have on the oxyheamoglobin dissociation curve
shift to the right
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what is the bohr effect?
more respiration causes more CO2 in the blood wich lowers the saturation of Oxygen in the hemoglobin and causes it to be relesed.
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how is most of the CO2 transported in the blood?
as hydrocarbanate
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what enzyme is needed for to convert CO2 and H2O into carbonic acid?
carbonic anhydrease
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what is the chlorine shift
when more chloreinions are absorbed to maintain neutral charge after hemoglobin acid is formed
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what are the equations for the bohr shift?
H2O + CO2 = H2CO3, H2CO3= (HCO3-) + (H+),
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what does an increase concentration of H+ ions do for oxyheamoglobin?
causes it to disociate with oxigen and bind to H+ forming HHB (heamoglobonic acid)
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Card 2

Front

how is does the fluid travel around the body in open systems?

Back

dorsal vessel pumps blood either by its heart chambers, or by peristalsis, and fluid will either get to organs by open ended vessels

Card 3

Front

what is the difference between a single and a double circulatory system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

why can some animals survive with single circulatory systems?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are the advantages of a double circulatory system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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