Cells, tissues and organs -key terms

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  • Created by: Cameron
  • Created on: 13-05-13 11:31
Movement
an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position, place, or aspect
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Respiration
the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy
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Sensitivity
the ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses
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Growth
a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both
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Reproduction
the processes that make more of the same kind of organism
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Excretion
removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements
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Nutrition
taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them
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binomial system
a system ofnaming species in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus (starting with a capitol letter) and species (starting with a lower case letter), written in italics when printed (therefore underlined
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Tissue
a group of cells with similar structures, working together to perform a shared function e.g. muscle tissue
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Organ
a structure made up of a group of tissues, working together to perform specific functions e.g. the heart
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Organ system
a group of organs with related functions, working together to perform body functions e.g. respiratory system
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Diffusion
the net movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement (until equilibrium is reached)
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Active transport
movement of ions in or out of a cell through the cell membrane, from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration against a concentration gradient, using energy released during respiration and a channel protein
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Osmosis
the diffusion of water molecules from a region of low solute concentration (dilute solution) to a region of higher solute concentration (concentrated solution), through a partially permeable membrane.
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Catalyst
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction and is not changed by the reaction
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Enzymes
proteins that function as biological catalysts
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Photosynthesis
the fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from light
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Limiting factor
is something present in the environment in such short supply that it restricts life processes
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Ingestion:
taking substances (e.g. food, drink) into the body through the mouth
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Egestion:
passing out of food that has not been digested, as faeces, through the ****.
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Digestion:
: the break-down of large, insoluble food molecules into small, water soluble molecules using mechanical and chemical processes
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Absorption:
: the movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestine into the blood or lymph. The small intestine is the region for the absorption of digested food.
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Assimilation
: the movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used, becoming part of the cells.
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Deamination
: as removal of the nitrogen containing part of amino acids to form urea, followed by release of energy from the remainder of the amino acid.
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Transpiration
:evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by loss of water vapour from plant leaves, through the stomata
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Translocation
the movement of sucrose and amino acids (*and hormones) in phloem; from regions of production (sources) to regions of storage OR to regions of utilisation in respiration or growth (sinks)
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Respiration:
: the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy
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Aerobic respiration
the release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen.
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Anaerobic respiration
the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen.
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Sense organ
groups of receptor cells responding to specific stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature and chemicals. The eye: the sense organ responsible for sight
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Hormone
: a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver
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Geotropism
a response in which a plant grows towards (positive) or away (negative) from gravity. Investigation: how plants respond to gravity
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Phototropism
a response in which a plant grows towards (positive) or away (negative) from the direction from which light is coming
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Homeostasis:
the maintenance of a constant internal environment
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Drug:
any substance taken into the body that modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body
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Asexual production
the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent
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Sexual reproduction
the process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei (23 chromosomes) to form a diploid zygote (46 chromosomes)and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring.
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Pollination
the transfer of pollen grains from the male part of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma).
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Development
increase in complexity
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Inheritance
the transmission of genetic information from generation to (the next) generation
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Chromosome
a thread of DNA, made up of a string of genes
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Gene
a length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. A gene may be copied and passed on to the next generation
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Allele
any of two or more alternative forms of a gene
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Haploid nucleus
a nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes (e.g. sperm and egg)
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Diploid nucleus
a nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes (e.g. in body cells)
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Mitosis
the nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells in which the chromosome number is maintained by the exactduplication of chromosomes (details of stages are not required).
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Genotype
: is the genetic makeup of an organism in terms of the alleles present (e.g. Tt or GG)
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Phenotype
the physical or other features of an organism due to both its genotype and its environment (e.g. tall plant or green seed) *blood type is one of them
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Homozygous
:having two identical alleles of a particular gene (e.g. TT or gg). Two identical homozygous individuals that breed together will be pure-breeding
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Heterozygous
: having two different alleles of a particular gene (e.g. Tt or Gg), not pure-breeding
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Dominant
an allele that is expressed if it is present (e.g. T or G)
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Recessive:
an allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present (e.g. t or g)
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Mutation
a change in a gene or chromosome (*caused by mistakes in copying the DNA before cell division – pairing with the incorrect base, or damage to DNA for example by radiation, or uneven distribution of chromosomes in cell division)
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Naturalselection
the greater chance of passing on of genes by the best adapted organisms
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Geneticengineering
taking a gene from one species and putting it into another species
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Food chain
a network of interconnected food chains showing the energy flow through part of an ecosystem
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Producer
an organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis
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Consumer
an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms
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Herbivore
an animal that gets its energy by eating plants
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Carnivore
an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals
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Decomposer
an organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic matter (*i.e. a saprotroph)
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Ecosystem:
: a unit containing all of the organisms and their environment, interacting together, in a given area e.g. decomposing log or a lake
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Trophic level
he position of an organism in a food chain, food web or pyramid of biomass, numbers or energy
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Population
a group of organisms of one species, living in the same area at the same time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Respiration

Back

the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy

Card 3

Front

Sensitivity

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Growth

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Reproduction

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Swallowtail

I've changed the title of this resource to reflect the fact that it is 64 cards worth of useful key words that cover most of the cells, tissues and organs topics and isn't just about the heart. (The original title).  These definitions are key to most GCSE Biology specifications. 

Lorran payne

Useful

amni1234

Hello how are you ?
Well i am doing igcse so will they help me for the notes?
is igcse and gcse the same thing?
What about the pastpaper codes you don't have 0610 ?

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