health and disease

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  • Created by: sarah
  • Created on: 28-05-14 14:44
define epidemiology
the study of the spread of a disease and the factors effecting the spread
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why do people study epidemiology?
to find out areas most at risk, keep track of infections, predict its spread and understand the scale of the problem
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define incidence
the number of new cases of a population per year
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define prevalence
the number of people with the disease at a given time
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define mortality
the number of people who die from the disease per year
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define morbidity
the number of people living with a disease as a proportion of the population
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define endemic
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define epidemic
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define pandemic
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what do the "WHO" do?
resurch to find cures, vaination programs, specialised health care, screening programs, advertisement, education
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define disease
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define health
the state f mental, physical and social well being, good nutrition, sustainabley housed as well as absence of disease
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what are the different types of diseases?
self inflicted, inherited, infectious, mental
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give an example of an inherited disease
cystic fibrosis
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define parisite
an organism that lives in or on another living organism causing harm to its host
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give an example of external and internal parasites that can be found on/in humans
head lice, tape worms
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define pathogens
microscopic disease causing organisms
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what are the different types of pathogens?
bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa
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what type of pathogen is influenza?
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how do viruses reproduce in body?
they enter cells through receptor, and using reverse transcriptase, the create DNA from their Viral RNA, this is inserted into cell dna causing the synthesis of viral proteins and substances needed to make more viruses
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what type of pathogen causes malaria?
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what properties must pathogens have to be able to cause disease?
travel from host to host, enter host's tissues, reproduce, cause dammage
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how can diseases be transmitted?
vector, contact, droplet
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what is the vector that spreads malaria?
female anopheles mosquito
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describe the malaria cycle
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where does the parasite that causes maleria reproduce
multiplies in liver, and produces gametes in RBC's
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what is the name of parasite that causes malaria?
plasmodium vivax
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how is malaria spread?
mosquito bites,unsterilized needles, unscreened blood transfusion, across placenta
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what are the problems with controlling malaria?
no effective vacne, paraite lives inside host cells so antigens are concealed from the immune system, long incubation period (symptom-less at first), mosquito is resistant to many insecticides, parasite is resistant to many drugs, poor health care
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how can you reduce the mosquito numbers?
spray pesticides, bacteria or oil on water (suffocate larvae), drain the ponds
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how can we avoid being bitten by mosquitoes?
wear insect repellent, sleep under mosquito nets
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what causes Aids?
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
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how does HIV cause aids
the virus attacks and kill T helper cells wich stop them from producing cytokines and stimulating phagocytosis, and Bcell divistion, this weekens immune system and allows opertunist diseases and infections to damage body (AIDS)
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what does aids stand for?
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
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why is it difficult to treat aids?
there is no cure/vaccine, it has such a high mutation rate, cannot be treated by antibiotics, carriers are symptom less for a long time
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why is aids normally found in LEDC?
less availability and use of condoms due to religion, attitudes and lack of education
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why are some people immune to HIV?
they don't have CD4 receptors, so virus can not enter cells and reproduce
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how could scientists create a cure for aids?
isolate the gene that codes for the immunity in immune people, and use gene theropy to insert it into others, alternativly could use genes to find shape of CD$ receptors and create a drug complimentary in shape witch would block them
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what type of pathogen causes tuberculosis?
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what is the name of the pathogen wich causes tuberculosis?
Microbacterium tuburculosis/bovis
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what are the symptoms of tuberculosis?
coghing blood, shortness of breath, thick alveolus walls, less surface area of alveolus
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how is tuberculosis transmitted?
droplet infection
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what conditions make the spread of tuberculosis more likely?
poor ventilation, overcrowded areas, poor diet, weekend immune system, milk/beef from infected cattle, homelessness
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why has tuberculosis not been eradicated?
vaccine is not 100% effective, no vaccine for new strains, treatment course is often not completed, antibiotic resistance, lack of education about it, symptomless
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what are the primary defenses of humans?
nose hair, ear wax, skin, mucus membrane (goblet cells and cillia), stomach acid, acidic ******
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what is the proper name for WBC's?
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what are the "2" types of WBC's?
lymphocytes, Phagocytes
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where are WBC's made?
bone marrow
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what are the two types of lymphocytes?
T and B (t goes to the thymus to develop)
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what are the difference between two types of phagocytes
macro-phages travel to the lymph nodes (as monocytes) and are bigger than and neutrophils are smaller and more common
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describe phagocytosis
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what chemical do infected cells release and why?
histomine, attracts phagocytes, makes capillery walls more leeky so more fluid moves out, and area swells. this also leads t more fluid in the lymph system wich will travel to lymph nodes, where macro-phages will engluf
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after phagocytes what happens?
antigen presentation, clonal selection, clonal expansion, differentiation
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what cells do T cells differentiate into?
T suppressor, t memory, T helper, T killer
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what can inferons do?
inhibit pathogen replication
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what do T suppressors do?
suppress the activity of other T&B cells
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what do T helper cells do?
release cytokines, witch stimulate phagocytes, and stimulate B cell division and differentiation
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what are cytokines?
hormone like chemical released by T helper cells, wich act over short distances and low concentrations, cause the release of messengers inside cell witch change gene expression
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what do T killer cells do?
secrete enzymes and toxins witch kill pathogen or infected cell
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what do antibodies do?
they can cause neutralisation, wich blocks the binding sites of pathogens so they cant enter cells. Opsonisation wich promotes phagocytosis, Agglutination (group together so too large to enter cells), immobilization (attach to flagella)
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what is the structure of antibodies?
Y shape, globular protein, constant and variable region, short and long chain, hinge region, disulphide bridge
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why is there a delay between first exposure to a pathogen, and the release of antibodies?
clonal selection and expansion takes time
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what is active immunity?
when the immune system makes its own antibodies when exposed to an antigen
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give an example of artificial active immunity
vacinations wich inject isolated antigens or dead/inactive pathogens to induce response
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define passive immunity
imunity where by a person is given antibodies that are made by another organism in order to fight a disease
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give an example of natural passive immunity
receiving antibodies from breast milk
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what is herd vacination
vaccinating more than 95% of the population to stop the disease from spreading
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what is ring vaccination
when a new outbreak has ocured, vaccinating those surrounding the infected area/ person in order to prevent the spread
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why do we want to find new drugs?
new diseases are emerging, currently no treatment for some diseases, some antibiotics are no longer effective
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how can we find new drugs?
by accident, traditional medicine, observations of wildlife, modern research
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how do damaged arterial walls lead to atherosclerosis?
the endothelial cells let LDL's throgh and this desposits in arterial wall, macrophages also enter walls and try to engulf fatty deposit, but die and make it worse. smooth muscle cells form a cap over deposits, and may start to calcify area
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what does chronic mean?
long term, slow onset, degenerative
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what is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
combination of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and astma
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what illnesses can be caused by tar?
chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, emphysema
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how does tar cause cause cancer?
it is carcinogenic, so it gets into nucleus of cells lining airways, and causes a mutation in the gene for cell division resulting in uncontrollable cell division witch leads to a tumor
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what are the symptoms of lung cancer?
blood in sputum, pain in chest, continuous coughing
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how does tar cause emphysema?
particles are trapped in alveoli (increasing diffution distance), neutrophils release elastase to digest elastic fibers, this means that coughing will cause alveolus to birst, reducing surface area
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how does tar cause chronic bronchitis?
paralyses cillia, and enlarges goblet cells, mucus builds up, continuous coughing, walls thicken, restricted air flow
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how does nicotine effect the body?
causes addiction. causes release of adrenalin, wwich increases heart and breathing rate, increases BP, damages arterial walls, burst and restrict flow, heart attack or stroke, atherosclerosis
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how does carbon monoxide effect the body?
enters RBC's binds with heamoglobin, making it have a lower affinity for oxygen, meaning caries less oxigenated blood, so heart pumps harder, and bp increases . it also damages artery walls
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Card 2


why do people study epidemiology?


to find out areas most at risk, keep track of infections, predict its spread and understand the scale of the problem

Card 3


define incidence


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Card 4


define prevalence


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Card 5


define mortality


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