Health and Disease

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What is meant by a balanced diet?
A diet which supplies all essential nutrients.
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Give 3 causes of malnutrition.
Not eating enough, having an unbalanced diet, and being unable to absorb nutrients.
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How can a diet that is high in salt increase the risk of CHD?
This leads to high blood pressure, artery wall damage, and atherosclerosis.
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Difference between LDLs and HDLs.
HDLs transport cholesterol from tissue to liver, LDLs take it from liver to tissue.
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What organism is the basis of all food chains?
Plants.
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How do fertilizers increase crop yeild?
By providing minerals that plants need to grow, in cases where they are lacking.
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How do antibiotics increase meat productivity?
They prevent disease, therefore reducing energy required to fight bacteria.
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State 3 foods made using microorganisms.
Bread, yoghurt, and cheese.
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Describe 2 adv. of using microorganisms in food production.
There is a high risk of contamination & small temp. or pH change can kill them.
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How does pickling preserve food?
Low pH reduces enzyme activity, inhibiting growth.
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What is meant by the term health?
A state of physical, mental, and social well-being, including the absence of disease and infirmity.
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What causes malaria?
The parasite Plasmodium being transferred by female mosquitoes.
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How can HIV be transmitted between individuals?
Unprotected sex, infected bodily fluids, and from mother to fetus.
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Name two primary defences.
Skin, and mucus membranes.
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Define the term immune response.
The body's reaction to a foreign antigen.
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What are antigens?
Molecules found on the surface of cells which allow the identification of foreign pathogens.
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What structures are found on the surface of T Lymphocytes?
Receptors.
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2 differences between primary and secondary response.
Primary acts on pathogens when they first enter the body, and are slower.
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What is the difference between passive and active immunity?
Active immunity is where the immune system makes its own antibodies, passive is given to the body.
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Difference between natural passive and artificial passive.
Natural-a baby becomes immune due to antibodies it receives. Artificial- immunity after injection of antibodies from someone else.
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State two adv. of vaccination.
Herd immunity can be created from vaccinating a community and help control disease.
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How does nicotine increase risk factors of atheromas forming?
Nicotine increases blood pressure causing damage to arteries, leading to the formation of hardening arteries.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give 3 causes of malnutrition.

Back

Not eating enough, having an unbalanced diet, and being unable to absorb nutrients.

Card 3

Front

How can a diet that is high in salt increase the risk of CHD?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Difference between LDLs and HDLs.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What organism is the basis of all food chains?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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