health lecture 2 - substance use, abuse and addiction

  • Created by: Cruick96
  • Created on: 19-04-17 17:19
what is drug abuse?
use of drug to extent of which it impairs user's bio, psycho or social well being
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what are the most widely used drugs worldwide?
alcohol and tobacco
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what is the 3rd biggest risk factor for disease?
alcohol
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what percentage of traffic deaths is alcohol accountable for?
40%
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what percentage of suicide attempts is alcohol accountable for?
80%
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how many deaths does tobacco cause annually?
5 million
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how many american people used prescription drugs for the wrong reasons?
16 million in 2010
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what is the blood brain barrier?
network of tightly packed capillary cells that separate the blood and the brain
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what does drug fat solubility affect?
determines the ease with which it passes through this barrier
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what are teratogens?
drugs, chemicals, envinronmental agents that can damage the developing person during foetal development
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what is an agonist?
a drug that attaches to a receptor and produces neural actions that mimic or enhance those of a nt
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what is an antagonist?
drug that blocks action of the nt
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what is drug addiction?
pattern of behaviour characterised by overwhelming involvement with use of drug despite the adverse effects, high relapse rate if discontinued
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what is dependence?
state in which the use of the drug is required for the person to function normally
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what are some side effects of amphetamines?
sickness, depression, anxiety
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what are some side effects of marijuana?
become anxious, agitated, paranoid when withdraw
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what is withdrawal?
unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms that occur when person abruptly ceases using certain drugs
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what are the 2 models of dependence?
biopsychosocial model and hypersensitivity theory
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what is the biopsychosocial model of dependence?
most drugs lead to both psychological and physical dependence
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what is the hypersensitivity theory of dependence?
addiction is the result of efforts by the body and brain to counteract the effects of a drug to maintain an optimal internal state
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what is the main sign of dependence?
tolerance - state of progressively decreasing responsiveness to a frequently used drug
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what are partial agonists?
nt's that bind and activate receptors but elicit smaller response than full agonists
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what are psychoactive drugs?
drugs that affect mood, behaviour and cognition by altering the function of neurons in the brain
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what are the 3 kinds of psychoactive drug?
hallucinogens, stimulants and depressants
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what are hallucinogens?
also called psychedelic drugs, marijuana, lsd, mescaline - these are the most widely abused drugs due to their rewards, can become addicted to hallucinogens very easily
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what are stimulants?
nicotine, caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, boost activity in the cns by altering action of acetylcholine, catecholamines and dopamine
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what are depressants?
barbiturates, opiates, alcohol, general anaesthetics (sedatives, tranquilisers), low doses reduce sensory responsiveness and slow cognition, higher doses produces drowsiness and lethargy
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what are the 3 main models of addiction?
biomedical models, reward models, social learning models
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what is the biomedical model?
addiction seen as disease, drug use leads to altered neurochemistry, become dependent, inherit a bio vulnerability to physical dependence, srug use serves to restore abnormally low levels of key nt's (withdrawal relief)
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what is some evidence for the biomedical model?
observations that depression, anxiety and low self esteem associated with nt deficiencies
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what evidence was withdrawal relief hypothesis based on?
evidence that opiates trigger dependence by suppressin the brains natural production of endorphins
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what is an exception to the withdrawl relief model?
alcohol doesn't appear to act on specific receptors - doesn't fit
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why is the withdrawal relief hypothesis appealing?
rational response to withdrawal sickness
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what are some issues with the model?
doesn't explain why addicts begin taking a drug in sufficient doses with enough frwquency to develop a dependence in the first place, inability to explain relapse (long after withdrawal symptoms subsided)
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what are the reward models of addiction?
addiction as pleasure seeking, drugs overstimulate the reward system, reward deficiency syndrome - brain malfunctions and leads to cravings, cocaine etc increase dopamine levels so put reward system in to overdrive
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what was olds and milner's negative reinforcement model of reward model of addiction?
attach electrodes in brain stem of rats and if rats touched lever it would give them a shock, accidentally got septal area of hypothalamus (becomes active when engage in pleasurable br), refused to leave spot kept pressing lever, stimulated pleasure
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what is some more evidence for the pleasure seeeking model?
people who develop dependence for one drug likely to get addicted to other too
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what are gateway drugs?
drugs that open doors to experimentation with other drugs (nicotine, marijuana)
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what are some negatives of this model?
some drugs that aren't considered addictive also produce feelings of wellbeing, nicotine is addictive but only induces a very mild euphoria, unable to explain why drug use continues when unpleasant side effects occur
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what are social learning models of addiction?
addiction = behaviour shaped by learning, social and cog factors
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what are the 3 approaches to the social learning models of addiction?
person's identifications with the drug, social control theory and peer cluster theory
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what is identification with the drug as approach to social learning model of addiction?
seeing oneself as a drinker plays key role in initiation and maintenance of addiction
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what is the social control theory?
the stronger a person's attachment to family, school and other institutions, the less likely will be to break any social norm
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what is the peer cluster theory?
maintains that peer groups are strong enough to overcome the controlling influence of social institutions - if u are very attached to peer group you may smoke because they do regardless
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what was the michigan study?
recruited 8th, 10th and 12th graders, and students who did well at school reported a lot of attachment to school and were less likely to smoke or use marijuana etc in their lives
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how does alcohol work?
depressant, slows the functioning of the CNS in manner similar to tranquilisers
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what did julien find about metabolising alcohol?
take a 175 pound man about an hour to metabolise the amount of alcohol in a one ounce glass of 80% spirits, 4ounce wine, 12ounce bottle beer
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what is the difference in metabolising alc between men and women?
women metabolise more slowly - they produce less of the enyzme alcohol dehydrogenase
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what are the short term effects of alcohol?
mild euphoria, dulling of memory and concentration, impairment of reaction time and motor skills, high levsl - vision blurry, sppech slurred, staggering
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what percentage of people are current regular drinkers?
50.4%
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what percentage of people are lifetime abstainers?
21.3%
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what percentage of people are former drinkers?
14.3%
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what percentage of people are current infrequent drinkers?
13.6%
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what is binge drinking?
having 4-5 drinks in a night
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what is at risk drinking?
2 or more eps of binge drinking in the past month or consuming 2 or more drinks per day in the past month
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what ages have the highest rates of drinking?
between ages of 25 and 44 have highest overall rates, but 18-24 cohort has highest rates of binge and heavy drinking
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what did eaton et al find about drinking amongst teens?
alcohol using amongst adolescents (12-17) dropped considerably in US after legal age was increased to 21. from 1980 - 2008 a drop of 24% was noted
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what is classed as heavy drinking?
more than 14 units a week
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what are some risk factors for alcohol abuse?
more men = current and binge and heavy drinkrs (maybe due to mental health issues), european americans have higher rates of drinking than african, asian or hispanic americans,
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how does alcohol abuse relate to mental health?
33% of drinkers meet criteria for MDD, 33% drinkers have coexisting anxiety problem, compared to 5% of adult population
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what are the physical effects of alcohol consumption on the brain?
craving, adverse reactions, high relapse rates due to chem changes in brain. prolonged heavy drinking can cause brain to shrink (inhibits neurogenesis). interfere with absorption of thiamin (could cause korsakoffs), inhibits dopamine and other nt's
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what is korsakoff's syndrome?
alcoholic dementia
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how does chronic use of alcohol affect immune and endocrine systems?
weakens immune system, damages cellular DNA, disrupts secretion of growth hormone, linked to decreased testosterone level, impotence, lowered fertility in men, linked to decreased estrogen levels, mestrual disturbances and miscarriage in women
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what has been found about age and alcohol in the immune and endocrine systems?
the younger you are the more resistent you are to those traits
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how does alcohol affect the cardiovascular system?
promotes formation of fat deposits on heart muscle, lowers efficacy and contributed to CVD, can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, increase heart rates, dilate blood vessels (lose heat), increase blood pressure and serum cholesterol accelerates coronary ath
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how does alcohol affect the gastrointestinal system?
contributes to stomach inflammation, formation of gastrointestinal ulcers, severe inflammation of liver (hepatitis), and replacement of normal liver cells by fibrous tissues (cirrhosis)
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how does alcohol affect pregnancy?
alc freely crosses placenta of preg woman (teratogen), place infants at risk of fetal alcohol syndrome which causes severe birth defects
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what are the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome?
low iq, microcephaly (small brain), congenital heart defects, much smaller, die young, small eye openings, glat elongated philltrum, short nose, flattened midface, thin upper lip
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what are the psychosocial consequences of drinking?
behaviour disinhibition, difficulty interpreting complex stimuli, alcohol myopia, increased risk taking,
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what was abbey, zawacki and mcauslan's study on alcohol and psychosocial consequences?
176 college students, 2 alc or nonalc drinks, 10 min absorption period, 15 min convo, trained observers code for attentive cues and sexual interest cues - drinkers exagg sexual interest cues and ignored ambiguous ones
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what can we conclude from abbey et al's study?
alc allows people to concentrate on salient cues that fit current beliefs
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what social problems does drinking cause?
interpersonal relationship difficulties, various types of violence, half of people convicted of **** or assault drinking before crime, increases chance of being victim in crime, behavioural disinhibition and sennsitiity to emotional pain, more unprot
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how do genes contribute to alcohol dependence?
some people inherit greater tolerance and genetically greater sensitivity to its pleasurable effects, estimated heritability of alc dependency abuse = 0.357 for males, 0.262 females, males single best predictor = 1st relative
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what are some gene-environment interactions in drinking?
parents of alc dependent children have lower socioeconomic status, also tend to be less supportive and involved in less than ideal marriages, these families predict early alc consumption
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what is behaviour undercontrol?
personality syndrome characteristed by aggressiveness, unconventionality and impulsiveness
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what is negative emotionality?
state of alc abuse characterised by depression and anxiety
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what are the 3 models of why people choose to drink?
tension reduction hyp, self awareness model, self handicapping model
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what is the tension reduction hypothesis?
drinking is reinforcing as it reduces stress and tension
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what is the self awareness model?
alc distorts info processing making drinkrers thinking less self critical
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what is the self handicapping model?
drinking = excuse for personal failure
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what is the greek effect?
if a member of a sporting society those groups tend to drink more than other students etc
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what are alcohol expectancies?
beliefs about alc predict its effects on the indiv, beliefs about peer use predict indivs use
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what are the stats of alc misuse in the UK?
over 9million ppl in england drink more than recommended amount, in 2012 6490 alc relayed deaths, 19% increase from 2001, 10% of UK burden and disease, costs england £21.b a year,
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what are the most widely used drugs worldwide?

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alcohol and tobacco

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what percentage of traffic deaths is alcohol accountable for?

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what percentage of suicide attempts is alcohol accountable for?

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