Health & social care

  • Created by: Sineadpx
  • Created on: 24-03-19 21:01
What are the four key principles of growth?
1) Growth rates not constant. 2) Different parts of the body grow at different rates. 3) Growth rates vary between children. 4) The growth rate of boys in a space of time is faster than girls.
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Identify the gross motor skills an infant will
6 months- infants gradually control muscles in neck and back so they can roll sit and crawl. 11/13 months- muscles in legs develop so they can stand and walk. 2 years- infants climb onto low furniture.
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Identify the fine motor skills an infant will experience
Newborns are born with grasp reflex so they can grasp adult finger. 3 month- hold a rattle-GRIPPING SKILL 12 months- pick up small objects using pincer grasp. 18 months- build blocks-MANIPULATION SKILL, use spoon, make marks with crayon using palma
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Identify the gross motor skills a child will experience
3/4 - balance, run, throw a ball then by 4 can aim it, hop. 5/8- balance on low beam, skip with rope, accurately throw n catch, and by 6 can ride a bike.
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Identify the fine motor skills a child will experience
3- developing tripod grasp, can use cutlery, turn pages, button clothes. 4- thread small beads and colour in. 5- control muscles in fingers to manipulate the construction block and use hand-eye coordination to fit pieces into place. Write her own n
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Identify the primary sexual characteristics in females
menstruation begins, uterus and vagina grow, ovulation occurs.
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Identify the secondary sexual characteristics in females
growth of pubic hair, hips widen due to redistribution of fat (allow child to move), breasts enlarge areolas darken (easier for infant to locate).
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Identify the primary sexual characteristics in males
penis enlarges, prostate gland produces secretions, testes enlarge and produce sperm.
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Identify the secondary sexual characteristics in males
facial hair, increased muscle, growth spurt, larynx grows causing voice to deepen
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Identify the physical changes experienced by an individual during early adulthood
The individual reaches physical maturity: motor coordination is at its peak, full height, and reaction time quickest, women at most fertile & lactation occurs, women enter perimenopause, hand eye coordination at its peak, sexual characteristic fully
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What happens during perimenopause?
Oestrogen decreases, ovulation is irregular which makes menstruation less frequent.they reach end of reproductive years – perimenopause. The reduction of oestrogen causes physical and emotional symptoms such as – hot flushes, loss of libido, night
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Explain the roles of oestrogen & progesterone
Oestrogen – plays the most important role in female sexuality and regulates ovulation. Progesterone - necessary for their implantation of fertilised eggs in the uterus, the maintenance of pregnancy and sexual health.
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Menopause is a natural physiological change, explain what happens due to the reduction of oestrogen
Ovaries stop making eggs & thinning/shrinking of vagina, reduction affects hypothalamus in brain which regulates temp, causing hot flushes & mood swings as oestrogen regulates neurotransmitters that affect mood.
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What is Jean Piaget’s theory on intellectual development
Piaget believed that children go through 4 universal stages of cognitive development, his research focused on how children acquire the ability to think. He suggested that a four year old cannot use abstract logical thinking as they are not capable
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What are the four stages Piaget speaks about in his theory?
Sensorimotor 0-2, Pre-operational 2-7, Concrete operational 7-11, Formal operational 11-18
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What is the sensorimotor stage? (0-2)
infant learns about environment & develop early schemas (concepts) by using all their senses physically to explore the world.
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What is the Pre-operational stage? (2-7)
children begin to control their environment by using symbolic behaviour including representational words and drawings and pretend play, but are unable to think logically.
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What is the concrete operational stage? (7-11)
children will use practical resources to help them understand the world such as counters for maths. They classify categories and use logic to understand things they see.
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What is the formal operational stage? (11-18)
Young people can have the capacity for abstract thought, rational thought and problem solving.
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What is conservation?
Conservation refers to children’s understanding that the amount remains the same even when the containers shape has changed. Piaget also used tests using solids, weight and number. (Conservation of solid, liquid and number)
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Why did Piaget believe children under 7 can’t conserve?
Piaget’s tests shows that children under 7 cannot conserve because they cannot think about more than one aspect of a situation at one time. By the operation stage at 7 years old, children can think logically so understand that the quantity is fixed.
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What is egocentricsim and what study proves piagets theory?
Piaget believed that until 7 years old children only see things from their viewpoint. He used the Swiss mountain test to prove his theory of egocentrism. – Child cannot describe mountain from dolls perspective.
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Explain a theorist who would disagree with Piaget
Bruner disagreed with Piagets theory he said children can think logically as long as they understand what the problem is and how to deal with it. – change language so it’s easier for them to understand.
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What did Noam Chomsky propose?
LAD as the hypothetical part of the human mind that allows infants to acquire & produce language. He believes ability to learn language is INNATE.
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What does Chomsky suggest about LANGAUGE ACQUSITION DEVICE
1)Are born with a structure in their brain that enables them to acquire language.2)Have a key period for first language development for first years of life.3)All follow same pattern of language development.4)Innate understanding of universal grammar.
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What is Bowlby’s theory?
Infants are biologically pre-programmed to form attachment, early months infants form one primary attachment (mother), attachment to primary care giver is a model for future attachments.
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Who criticises Bowlby?
Schaffer & Emerson- they criticize Bowlby and say any parent can be primary caregiver and from attachment. Whoever responds to their signals, not just mother. 3months- responds to any caregiver. 4-7months- shows preference for primary caregiver.
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What is Mary Ainsworth’s Strange situation classification?
Classes’ attachments into three main types based on studies of children’s reactions when parted from parents. These include secure, insecure/avoidant and insecure/resistant. Disrupted attatchment may cause difficulty forming relationships.
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Explain what a secure attatchement is
parent in tune with their child and their emotions – child will be distressed when primary caregiver leaves, greets them when they return; seeks comfort from caregiver when upset, happy with strangers when caregiver is present.
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Explain what an insecure/avoidant attatchement is
unavailable to child/rejects them – does not show distress when primary caregiver leaves; continues to explore environment; may go to stranger for comfort.
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Explain what an insecure/resistant attatchement is
parent is inconsistent in meeting the child’s needs – sows distress when primary caregiver leaves but resists contact on their return; shows anxiety and insecurity.
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What does Gessel’s theory speak about?
Gesells’s maturation theory helps to explain how biological maturation is related to overall development. – theory that states development is due to nature and nurture. He believes a child is born with a set of genetic instructions which are innate.
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What beliefs are Gesell’s theory based around
1)Development is genetically determined from birth.2)Children follow the same orderly sequence in their development.3)The pace of development may vary depending on physical and intellectual development.
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What are the positives of Gesell’s maturation theory
He determined typical norms of development that are still used today. He used advanced methodology I observations of behaviour of large numbers of children.
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What are the negatives of Gesell’s maturation theory
He did not consider the influence of individual or cultural differences in children. He believed that the ‘norms’ of development he described were desirable. CASE STUDY OF GENIE DISAPROVES HIS THEORY.
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What is Banduras social learning theory
Based on a belief that learning happens through observing, imitating and modelling behaviours of others.
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What was the Bobo Doll experiment?
Children were shown adults being aggressive or non-aggressive towards the bobo doll. The experiment was designed by Bandura to show that: children would copy aggressive behaviour form another person.
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What were the results of the Bobo Doll experiment?
1) children learned aggressive behaviour through observation. 2) Children were more likely to imitate an adult who was rewarded for aggressive behaviour than one who was reprimanded.
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What is the stress-Diathesis ?
It explains how both nature and nurture play a role in development of psychological disorders. Stress- traumatic events in a persons life e.g.abuse. Diathesis – predisposition to mental disorders due to an abnormality of the brain.
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Biological factors- Give an example of a dominant gene
Brittle Bone disease – it can also develop from genetic mutation. Children born with this are at risk of breaking bones easier because their bodies do not make the right amount of collagen.Can be treated through physiotherapy/drugs to strengthen bone
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Biological factors- What’s the difference between dominant & Recessive genes?
Dominant- defective gene that only needs to be passed by one parent not both. Recessive genes- defective gene that can only be passed if both parents have it.
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Biological factors- Give an example of a recessive gene
Cystic fibrosis-caused by a defective protein produced which causes a build-up of thick mucus which can cause damage to lungs. People may suffer from respetory and chest infections. Most kids have short life expectancy, this has increased.
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Biological factors- Give an example of a mutation disorder
Down syndrome – individuals have an extra copy of chromosome 21, this causes characteristic facial features, growth delay and intellectual disability.
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Biological factors- What are they impacts of foetal alcohol syndrome
this syndrome is caused by exposure in the womb, symptoms- small head circumference, neurological problems, abnormal growth, and developmental delay.
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Biological factors- Give two examples of maternally infections
infections such as rubella (measles) or CMV (herpes) can be passed to the baby in the womb through placenta that may cause- health problems, congenital defects, still birth, miscarriage.
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Biological factors- What are the factors contributing to congenital anomalies?
genetic such as down syndrome, environmental such as maternal exposure to radiation causing abnormal growth, infection such as rubella resulting in deafness, nutritional such as deficiency in folate which increases the risk of neural tube defect.
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Biological factors- What are congenital anomalies?
defects that develop within the foetus, such as congenital heart diseases.
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Environmental factors- What is pollution and what effects can it have on a person?
Occurs when harmful substances contaminate atmosphere which enter the body via nose, mouth or skin. Conditions caused by this- respiratory disorders e.g. asthma. Cardiovascular problems e.g. artery blockage. Allergies e.g. wheezing, rashes.
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Environmental factors- What are the effects of poor housing conditions on a person?
happens when harmful substances contaminate atmosphere which enter the body via nose, mouth or skin. Conditions caused by this- respiratory disorders e.g. asthma. Cardiovascular problems e.g. artery blockage. Allergies e.g. wheezing, rashes.
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Environmental factors- How might access to Health and Social Care services impact a person?
Equal access to all – equality act 2010. Service availability – specialist services and rugs may not be available in some geographical locations CATCHMENT AREAS, there may be restrictions on delivery or open times, pressures lead to high demand.
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Social factors- What are the reasons behind family dysfunctions?
parents preserve their own dysfunctional upbringing, untreated mental illness in famjly members, substance abuse.
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Social factors- What are the impacts of family dysfunctions?
members of dysfunctional families have negative self-image and low self-esteem and difficulty building friendshipss and relationships.
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Social factors- What are the short & long term effects of bullying?
Short term- stress, poor self-image, low self-esteem, eating disorders, withdrawal from social activities. Long term – difficulties forming relationships, poor academic achievement, substance misuse, self-harm.
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Lifestyle rules- Muslims only eat halal meat and are strict vegetarians, what are the health benefits
high fibre and low fat diets lower risk of cholesterol and heart disease and high blood pressure. Reduced risk of cancers and heart disease if alcohol or stimulants are restricted.
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Lifestyle rules- what could be the health risks for Muslims?
heartburn, malnourishment, dehydration, exacerbation of existing conditions such as diabetes.
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Lifestyle rules- what religion does not use medical interventions?
Christian scientists believe healing through prayer therefore Jehovah’s witnesses do not receive blood transfusions health risks- deterioration to health and possible death.
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What are the positive social and emotional effects of culture & beliefs ?
people share the same values, beliefs and religion. People feel accepted and are supported by others. People feel valued by others because of their values, beliefs and religion.
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What are the negative social and emotional effects of Culture & beliefs?
people are discriminated against because if their values beliefs, or religion. People feel excluded because if their values beliefs or religion. A persons culture is ignored not understood.
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What does econmic factors include?
Income & expenditure, education, employment status, lifestyle and health and employment status.
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Econmic factors- what are the positive physical effects of working?
active jobs improve muscle tone and stamina. Lifestyle; being able to afford a healthy diet and regular exercise to keep digestive systems, circulatory systems and joints healthy.
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Econmic factors- what are the negative physical effects of working?
manual jobs may cause muscular and skeletal problems, desk- based jobs can cause back problems.
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Econmic factors- what are the positive intellectual effects of working?
being in work, promotes creative thinking and problem solving skills. Being able to afford a good diet and exercise can promote cognitive development
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Econmic factors- what are the negative intellectual effects of working?
being out of work, retired may cause deterioration of memory and problem solving skills. Low-income and low quality of life can lead to stress and loss of concentration.
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Econmic factors- what are the positive emotional effects of working?
being in a high-status job and having a good income may lead to positive self-esteem. Having an adequate income and job provides opportunities and independence.
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Econmic factors- what are the negative emotional effects of working?
being unemployed, poor academic achievement leads to low self-esteem, low income and poor health due to lifestyle can lead to lack of choice and independence.
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Econmic factors- what are then positive social effects of working?
being at school or work provides opportunities to develop friendships. Being able to afford a healthy lifestyle can lead to friendships.
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Econmic factors- what are the negative social effects of working?
low income or unemployment offers fewer opportunities to build friendships. Poor lifestyle nay lead to a breakdown in relationships.
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Describe how the Holmes-Rahe social adjustment rating scale is usedf
They listed 43 life events an individual may experience, they applied a score to each life event depending on the amount of stress they cause, patients indicate what events they experience, patients then add up their scores.
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What were the results of this study?
Holmes and Rahe found there was a correlation between the number of units and their illness.
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Affects of ageing- what’s the first change found in the heart?
the heart may increase in size causing the heart wall to thicken, making it more difficult for the heart muscles to relax and fill with blood between beats.
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Affects of ageing- what’s the second change found in the heart?
Artery walls narrow due to clogging by fats called cholesterol, preventing blood from passing easily.
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Affects of ageing- what’s the third change found in the heart?
Pacemaker cells decrease causing problems in the rhythm of heart.
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Affects of ageing- what’s the final change found in the heart?
The valves inside the heart that control the flow of blood thicken and become stiffer.
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How can health factors impact cardiovascular disease?
genetic inheritance, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, high blood cholesterol.
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What are the lifestyle factors that can Increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
smoking, alcohol, diet high in salt, diet high in saturated fats, lack of exercise.
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What are the possible positive effects of cardiovascular disease in old age?
closer relationships with family members and friends, choosing to improve lifestyle.
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What are the possible negative effects of cardiovascular disease in later adulthood?
loss of independence, anxiety about health, depression, anger, frustration, reduced mobility, loss of opportunity to develop new friendships.
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Degeneration of nervous tissue- what occurs with the degeneration of taste
With age the number of taste buds decreases and saliva, reducing the enjoyment of food and perhaps as resulting in poor diet.ability to smell decreases reducing the ability to detect dangerous odours such as fumes or foods that have gone off.
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Degeneration of nervous tissue- reduced Number of receptor cells leads to what
Reduced sensitivity to temp, which can lead to burns, frostbite or hypothermia. Reduced sensitivity to injury which can lead to untreated sores. Skin becoming more sensitive to sun leads to skin cancer
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Degeneration of nervous tissue- Degeneration of sight leads to
Vision less sharp, cataracts may develop causing cloudiness, vitreous starts to shrink causing floaters, peripheral vision deteriorates, eye muscles weaken reducing field of vision, increase risk of AMD which causes gradual loss of sight.
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Degeneration of nervous tissue- degeneration of hearing leads to
Fluid-filled tube in inner ear help to maintain balancer become effected causing falls, distinguishing sounds difficult, tinnitus- persistent noise experienced because of build up of wax or damage to ear.
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What are the physical effects of osteoarthritis?
swelling and pain in joints, damage to the soft tissue around the joints, difficulty in walking, difficulty in climbing stairs.
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The risk of getting osteoarthritis is increased by
obesity, injury to joints, genetic inheritance, being female, hoping abnormality, being over 40.
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The reductions of the absorption of nutrients is caused by what?
reduced production of gastric hydrochloride acid which prevents the breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. the deterioration of the function of the digestive organs and digestive lining.
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What factors can increase risk of getting dementia?
Strokes may cause dementia because when the brains blood supply is restricted brain cells begin to die. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can increase risk of dementia. The risk of dementia increase with age.
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What is Alzheimers
Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia. It mainly affects people over the age of 65. Proteins called plaques and tangles build up ink the brain, which affects the transmission of signals.
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Physical effects of illness
Make the body less able to fight infection Reduce stamina Result in loss of mobility Cause pain and discomfort Impact on the senses, making them less sharp Affect vision causing dizziness that could lead to falls.
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Intellectual effects of illness
Cause short-term memory loss Affect decision-making skills Slow the ability to respond & rect to information Cause difficult in verbal communication
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Social effects of illness
Reduce the opportunity and ability to socialise with friends Impact on sense or neural capacity, making socialising difficult Affect ability to communicate in groups
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Emotional effects of illness
Cause emotional stress e.g. incontinence, communication difficulties. Result in dependence on others for personal care Cause feelings of a lack of contrl Bring families closer together Result in low self-esteem
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Physiological effects of ageing- Loss of jobs & status
retirement may reduce self-esteem due to feeling of lack of purpose, but increase leisure time & opportunities to try new things such as travel, enjoy grandchildren & hobbies.
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Physiological effects of ageing- Reduced mobility/fitness
inability to move around & continue to carry out physical tasks an result in cognitive decline & reduce wellbeing.
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Physiological effects of ageing- loss of independence
reliance on others increases feeling of helplessness.
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Physiological effects of ageing- Reduced acces to social netwokrs
difficulty in meeting and taking part in social activity can prevent development of brain, cause or worsen depression & other mental conditions.
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Physiological effects of ageing- Death of partner
grief can cause a loss of sense of safety & security, increased isolation & loss of intimacy & identity.
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Physiological effects of ageing- Losing own home
affect contentment & security when forced to move, e.g. into smaller house with family or residential care.
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What are the possible financial concerns for elderly? Give statistics.
In 2016, 29% said they did not have financial concerns, 26% said they were just getting by, 14% living in poverty.- this can result in less opportunity to socialise, less money for needs, worry & stress.
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What does loneliness & dependence lead to
36% of people over 65 years live alone. Taking advantage of free bus travel or continuing to drive can help older adults to feel part of the community, and reduce the feeling of loneliness and dependence.
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What might reduced an elderly persons self esteem?
Health, unemployment & financial security are essential for high self-esteem. that they whare no longer useful, that they are no longer independent & cant do things for themselves, financially insecure.
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What are the effects of culture, religion & beliefs
these can have positive impacts on ageing because- individuals feel part of a group or community so less isolated, beliefs help people to make sense of their ageing and come to terms with mortality, some cultures & more value for elders.
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What is the social Disengagement theory Created by ******* & Henry in 1961?
First ageing theory within the social sciences circle, he believes it was a step by step process. Based on *******‘s and Henry’s belief of an individuals awareness of morality.
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What are the features of the disengagement theory?
Disengagement and withdrawal of social interaction with the society they are engaged in this applies to all cultures, an inevitable, innate process, nature. Disengagement process for men & women differs due to different social roles.
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What’s wrong with the disengagement theory by ******* & Henry?
Reasons for disengagement are actually - ill health, mobiltiy retirement, travel & technology.different social roles- out dated. ‘Empty nest syndrome’ - DUAL BREADWINNERS
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Why is provision for the aged needed?
age-related disease, increased risk of falls, loss of independence, age-related conditions, loss of mobility, chronic conditions, prevention of isolation, prevention or slowing age related diseased and illness.
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What types of provision is available for elderly?
Acute care- meeting immediate needs e.g heart attacks, Healthcare- Medication, Social care- Own home. Psychological care- counsellors. Entitlements-transport. End-of-life-care - Psychological support.
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Give facts about the aging population.
Life expectancy is now 79.2 years for males and 83.3 for females. There are as many people over 65 years old as under 16 One in three born babies today will reach 100 years of age. The old age dependency ratio has risen
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What does the ageing population mean in economy?
Healthcare is at a higher demand than it previously was,More state pension so less money for economic investment, People staying in own homes longer- shortage of housing for families.
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How has the government responded to the changes due to an ageing population?
raising retirement age, making it easier for older people to stay in work and/or part time, encouraging people in work to take out private pensions, increasing taxes to pay for state pensions & welfare.
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Why is additional pressure put on services?
advances in medicine that help people to live longer, families being unable or less willing to care for older family members at home, an increase in the numbers of older people with chronic conditions.
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Card 2

Front

Identify the gross motor skills an infant will

Back

6 months- infants gradually control muscles in neck and back so they can roll sit and crawl. 11/13 months- muscles in legs develop so they can stand and walk. 2 years- infants climb onto low furniture.

Card 3

Front

Identify the fine motor skills an infant will experience

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Identify the gross motor skills a child will experience

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Identify the fine motor skills a child will experience

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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