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define health
the overall condition of an individual at a given time in regard to soundness of body and mind and freedom from disease or abnormality
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define public health
the aspect of medical activity directed towards improving the whole community, addresses the health of the population as a whole
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define mortality
death, accompanied by cause of death
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define morbidity
state of being ill or diseased that damages health and quality of life
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define attack rate
Number of cases of a disease diagnosed in an area, divided by the total pop, over the period of an epidemic
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define epidemic
quickly spreading disease affecting a lot of people
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define pandemic
when an epidemic spreads over large area
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define endemic
when an infectious disease always in an area
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why is health studied?
there are many different diseases and ways diseases are spread , differnt dieseases also affect different areas eg ledcs and medcs and have differnt causes and cures making it important to study
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what are the main causes of death in places with low income?
1) respiratory infections 2) HIV/AIDS 3) diarrhoeal disease 4) stroke 5) heart disease
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what are the main causes of death in places with high income?
1) heart disease 2) stroke 3) trachea, bronchus and lung cancer 4) alzheimers 5) COPD
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global patterns of HIV
global, highest attack rate in sub-saharan africa, least is in australia
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global paterns of cholera
there is no pattern, highest in papaewguinea, least cases are in america and europe
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what are the main objectives of the world health organisation (WHO)?
-promote development -faster health security
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what are the causes of HIV?
unprotected sex, unhygenic conditions, men having more than one wife, prostitutes, religion
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how/ why is HIV spread?
hard to detect, bodily fluids, unprotected sex, a child being born from a HIV positive woman
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what are the effects of HIV?
life expectancy is reduced, young people are dying lack of workforce, cost of drugs £10,000 per year, in SA government lost 15% of GDP, development into AIDS, prejudice against people with HIV, orphaned children, weakened economy
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how can HIV be prevented?
antiretroviral drugs for people with the disease, use of condoms, education; abstain, be faithful, condomise, death
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facts about AIDS in africa
sub-saharan africa holds 10% of worlds population and 60% of the worlds cases of HIV, 26 million people with HIV
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facts about HIV/AIDS in botswana
25% of adults are infected by HIV, life expectancy less than 34, 1/6 are HIV positive, 90% of people are receiving treatment, highest % of people with HIV in africa
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what factors have influenced the spread of AIDS?
mobile population, lack of education, problems with distribution of contraception, traditions and taboos, young girls being with older men
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how has HIV/AIDS been reduced in uganda?
1990- AIDS information centre set up, 1994- AIDS CPU established, £50 million borrowed from the world bank, 2000- action plan was set in place, 2001- nearly £50 million agreed to be spent on prevention and treatment programmes
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how can the spread of HIV be reduced globally?
behavioural- education, 'ABCD', health campaigns, UNAIDS groups. biomedical- vaccines and treatments, cures and tests
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what are some of the complicatuions of curing HIV?
ledcs cant afford treatments, it is a wide spread problem, lack of political will, type of health care in countries, religions and traditions
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what is a TNC?
transnational corporations, large international companies who operate across international boundaries
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what are the top 5 pharmaceutical companies?
-johnson + johnson -pfizer -roche -glaxosmithkline -novartis
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why is it expensive to develop a new drug?
they need to be tried and tested before sold, need specific scientists to develop them
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what are some of the positives of GSK
supply 1/4 of worlds vaccines, 2000 investment was £300 million, 1 billion packs of medicines and vaccines produced each year, employs 100,000 people, 15,000 employees are researches developing new drugs
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what countries have the lowest % of HIV positive people?
1. australia (0.1%) 2. UK (0.2%) 3. USA (0.6%)
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what are some of the positives associated with health TNCs?
improvements to services, improves level of education of local people, bigger local workforce, creates jobs
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negatives of health TNCs?
insufficient attention paid to health and safety of the workforce, local work force paid poorly, long work hours
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what impact has BAT had on mauritius?
1/2 of a class of 12 year olds smoke, children are unaware of the dangers, 1/3 of all children aged 13-15 smoke, BAT controls 99% of the market
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what impact has BAT had on nigeria?
BAT controls 92% of market, capaigns target children, smoking is seen as sophisticated
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what is a disease of affluence?
a non-communicable disease eg type 2 diabetes
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what are the causes of type 2 diabetes?
genetics and lifestyle are the most important ones, obesity
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how can type 2 diabetes be prevented?
medical- metaformin, sulphonylureas non-medical- diet, weight loss, exercise
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what are the health effects of type 2 diabetes?
-health complications; high blood pressure, possiblity of heart disease and stroke
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what are the economic impacts of type 2 diabetes?
2010, cost of patient care was almost £9 billion and indirect costs were around £13 billion
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what are the social effects of type 2 diabetes?
being inable to go about daily life, might not be able to work reducing their quality of life even more
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why is diabetes spreading?
diet, urban lifestyle, alcohol and tobacco, stress
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facts about diabetes in sri lanka
-25% suffering with diabetes -8% school children -tradition heavy carbohydrate diet
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factors contributing to increasing obesity?
-less manual work -people are less active -high calorie diet -smoking -alcohol -healthy foods are expensive -fast foods
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where are the highest % of obese males?
north america, australia, canada, UK, libya
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what is the cost of obesity in UK?
the NHS pay around £1 billion a year
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what is famine?
extreme scarcity of food
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what are some causes of famine?
malnutrition from food shortages, draught, rising food prices,
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what are some effects of famine?
lower fertility rate, anemia, starvation and weight loss, economic problems, possibility of death
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solutions to famine?
short term and long term famine relief; distribution of food, use of fertilisers on land
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facts about famine in niger 2005?
-2004, severe draughts, 100% of land destroyed in some cases, more than 3 million people short of food -mid 2005 160,000 children malnurished, the government was corrupt, around 100,000 deaths, food prices rose by 80%, no aid was accepted
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what is an emergent health care system?
eg india (gov spending low, hospitals in cities, doctor ratio 7000:1 in rural) -health care is seen as an item of personal consumption - private ownership of facilities -patients pay doctors directly -states role is very minimal
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what is a pleuralistic health care approach?
eg USA (independant doctors etc, customers pay for everything, need insurance for treatment) -health care is seen as an item of personal consumption -doctor operates as an entrepreneur -private and public -states role is minimal
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what is insurance/ social security health system?
eg france, spain (patients choose doctors and check themselves in/ out, private insurance companies, patient pays on the spot, expensive system) -health care is insured -docs entrepreneurs or members -private and public -state has indirect role
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what is the NHS approach?
eg UK, canada (financed by gov taxes, rich and poor are treated alike, primary care) -state supported -doctor operates solo and members - facilites publically owned - states role is central and direct
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what is the socialised health care system?
eg cuba (health of the nation, 130,000 health care professionals) -state provided -doctors are employed by the state - publically owned -states role is central
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what 'obama' care?
extended insurance, taxes on the wealthy, doesnt cover people with pre-existing medical conditions
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what is the CCG?
clinical comission group, gp led organisations, every surgery belongs to a ccg, ccg's decide whether patients care should be paid for; nhs or private
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what health care is there on the wirral?
3 hospitals, 60 gp's, 55 dentists, 90 pharmacies
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health care in cuba?
-a doctor on every block -development in high tech medicine -130,000 professions
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data for the wirral?
bidston most income and education deprived, health care is less in small rural areas, housing is most expensive in calday and cheapest in birkenehad
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health care in exeter?
2 hospitals, 25 gp's, 18 dentists, 42 pharmacies
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what is the regional LE in the UK?
-UK m=76 w=81 -england m= 80 w=82 -wales m= 76 w= 81 -scotland m= 74 w= 80
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what are the changes of time living in poor health?
*men, 1980 6.5 years- 2004 8.5 years *women, 1980 10 years- 2004 11.5 years
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rates of disease in scotland?
highest rates of lung cancer, heart disease and drug and alchohol abuse
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rates of disease in wales?
highest rates of breast, bowel and prostate cancer
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rates of disease in northern ireland?
highest rates of respiratory disease
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rates of disease in england?
highest rates of cardiovascular disease
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why is there a difference in health globally?
1 age 2 occupation/ income 3 behaviour/social class 4 education 5 environmental
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what are the regional LE for the UK?
*glasgow, men- 71 women- 77 *manchester, men- 74 women- 80 *belfast, men- 74 women- 80 *anglesey, men 75 women 79
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why is glasgows LE so low?
premature deaths by cancer and heart disease, deaths from suicide (highest rates than anywhere in uk), declining industrial regions
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highest and lowest % of healthy eating in uk?
kensington/ chelsea, 46%, easington 14%
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highest and lowest rates of teenage pregnancies in uk?
lambeth, 83 per 1000, rutland 12 per 1000
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highest and lowest % of binge drinking in the UK?
harrow 9%, newcastle 29%
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how does age influence health?
-different causes of death -south coast more elderly people -more young people in road traffic accidents -ageing population, better services specific for elderly people
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how does behaviour/ social class effect health?
quality of life and healthy living/ diet, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, personal choices
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how does education impact health?
better education in the south more private schools, education leads to better decisions and choices in everyday life
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Card 2


define public health


the aspect of medical activity directed towards improving the whole community, addresses the health of the population as a whole

Card 3


define mortality


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Card 4


define morbidity


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Card 5


define attack rate


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