HD - Hypothalamus and pituitary

Ant. Lobe of the pituitary is also known as?
Adenohypothesis
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What is the adenohypothesis made up off?
Endocrine cells, Pars distalis, Pars tuberalis
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The neurointermediare lobe is made up of?
Pars intermedia, pars nervosa
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What is the post. Pituitary lobe also known as?
Neurohypothesis
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What is the neurohypothesis made up of?
Nerves, pars nervosa, infundibulum
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What is the difference between tropic and non-tropic hormones
Tropic hormones stimulate another gland to release a further hormone, non-tropic hormones directly stimulate target cells
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What carries tropic hormones from the nuclei of the hypothalamus to the ant. Pituitary?
Portal vessels
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Which hormones have tropic effects only? (4)
FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
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Which hormones have non-tropic effects only? (2)
Prolactin and MSH
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Which hormone has both tropic and non-tropic hormones?
GH
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FSH leads to what hormone being produced in females?
Oestrogen
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LH leads to what hormone being produced in females?
Oestrogen and progesterone
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Spermatogenesis is stimulated by what hormones?
FSH and LH
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LH leads to what hormone being released in males?
Testosterone
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What actions increase the release of prolactin?
Pregnancy and lactation
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What inhibits prolactin release?
DA
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What enhances prolactin release?
TRH
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In pregnancy what does prolactin release lead to?
Increased breast development and post partum it is involved in milk production
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Describe the mechanism of how suckling leads to prolactin release?
Suckling stimulates mechanical receptors that lead to DA inhibition and therefore increased prolactin
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What hormones leads to the stimulation of myoepithelial cells leading to milk ejection?
Oxytocin
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What two ways does GH act?
GH receptors but also by synthesis of IGF in the liver
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What increases the release of GH?
GHRH
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What inhibits the release of GH?
Somatostatin
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What causes negative feedback on GH release?
GH and IGF
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What are the effects of GH? (4)
Long bone growth until epiphysis fusion, anti-insulin effects (hypoglycaemia leads to GH release), anabolic for proteins, catabolic for carbs
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The effect of exercise, sleep, stress and postprandial decline of glucose on GH levels?
Increase
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What clinical conditions are caused by hypersecretion of GH?
Gigantism before bone fusion or acromegaly after
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What clinical conditions are caused by hyposecretion of GH?
Short stature beforehand, GH deficiency in adulthood
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Treatment for acromegaly? (6)
Trans-sphenoidal surgery, D2 agonists (carbegoline, bromocriptine) long acting somatostatin analysts (octreotride, lanreotide - SSTR2, pasireotise - SSTR5)
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Hyperprolactinaemia results in?
Galactorrhoea, gynaecomastia (M), infertility (M and F)
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Treatment of hyperprolactinaemia?
D2 agonists - bromocriptine, carbergoline)
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What are the two hormones released by the post. Pituitary?
Oxytocin and AVP
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Which neurophysin is the precursor for oxytocin and which for AVP?
NVP1 - oxytocin, NVP2 - AVP
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Which nuclei are involved with oxytocin and AVP
SON and PVN (NP2 80% SON)
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AVP effects?
Changes in TBW (hyperosmolarity - AVP release), maintain BP by water reabsorption and vasoconstriction
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What receptors pick up osmolarity levels?
Osmoreceptors
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Which receptors detect changes in plasma volume?
Baroreceptors
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What leads to oxytocin secretion?
Parturition and lactations
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What are the actions of oxytocin?
Uterine contractions and milk ejection from mammary glands
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the adenohypothesis made up off?

Back

Endocrine cells, Pars distalis, Pars tuberalis

Card 3

Front

The neurointermediare lobe is made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the post. Pituitary lobe also known as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the neurohypothesis made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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