Hazardous Earth Revision Cards (hard bits).

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Park Model (Stage 1)
Modifying cause and event (pre-disaster).
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Park Model (Stage 2)
Hazardous event - use if vulnerability strategies. (relief, hours to days).
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Park Model (Stage 3)
Search, rescue and care (Relief still).
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Park Model (Stage 4)
Relief and rehabilitation period - some outside help at times. Modifying loss. (rehabilitation, days to weeks).
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Park Model (Stage 5)
Nature of recovery (need to reduce vulnerability and restore normality ASAP). Rebuilding infrastructure (reconstruction, weeks to years).
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Weigner's Evidence for continental drift (geological).
S.AMerica and Africa's continents fit on either side of atlantic. Evidence from 300m years ago of contemporary glaciation effects in S.Africa, Australia, S.America, India and Antarctica Suggest land masses once joined. Oceanic chains/rocks similar.
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Weigner's Evidence for continental drift (biological).
Similar brachiopods fossils found in Indian and Australian limestones as well as reptile fossils in S.America/Africa. Rocks younger than carboniferous period less similar = different evolution.
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Future strategies on risks from tectonic hazards.
Future research focuses on improving earthquake forecasting due to no possible predictions to draw action plans. Un identifies alleviation of poverty to reduce effects of them. Falling buildings cause greatest casualties by far due to seismic design.
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Shallow-focus earthquakes.
Surface down to 70km. Often in brittle rocks, releasing low energy levels but high-energy has severe impacts.
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Deep-focus earthquakes.
70-700km, increasing depth = higher pressures and temps. Less frequent, more powerful. Minerals and water maybe players in causes.
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Effects on land(forms/scapes).
Dramatic and widespread effect on global landscapes across different geological timelines. Mountain ranges created as well as major fault systems.
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Modified Mercalli Scale.
Measures earthquake intensity and impact. Relates to impact felt and seen by the affected. Qualitative.
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Moment Magnitude Scale.
scale of 1-9. Each numbers represents a ten-fold increase in intensity on the logarithmic scale.
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Hazard management cycle (in order clockwise).
1.Risk assessment, 2.Mitigation/prevention, 3.warning/evacuation, 4.saving lives/ assistance, 5.assessing damage, 6.ongoing assistance, 7.rtestoration of infrasructure, 8.reconstruction, 9.socio-economic recovery, 10.ongoing developmental activities.
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Fossil Records.
Similar fossils found on seperate continents e.g. the brachiopod ones on australian and indian limestones.If continental drift didn't occur, species would have evolved differently on different continents.
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Paleomagnetism.
Lead to evidence of sea-floor spreading. Erupted lava cools and magnetic orientation of iron particles "locked" in cooled rock. Directio changes every (400-500),0000 years.
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Age of sea-floor rocks.
1960s, ocean drilling programme showed thickest/oldest sediments near continents with young despots further out in oceans. Evidence for sea-floor spreading.
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Evidence of sea-floor spreading.
1960s, evidence of sea-floor spreading discussed, magnetic fields showed fresh molten rock from asthenosphere and older rock used away from the ridge. Links to theory of continental drift.
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Pyroclastic flows.
Flows of gas and tephra which are extremely hot (500*C+) and flow down side of volcanoes at 100km/h.
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Gas emissions.
Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and chlorine escape through fumaroles. Suplhur dioxide combines with water to produce acid rain leading to chemical weathering and pollution.
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Tephra.
Volcanic bombs and ash ejected into atmosphere, size ranging from ash to larger bows of 6cm in diameter.
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Lahars/flooding from melting ice.
Type of mud flow. Ice and snow on a volcano summit melt during eruption and Rock/ash/soil mix together to destroy and bury anything in the way of the rapid flow.
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Tsunamis.
Violent volcanic eruptions can displace oceanic water leading to a tsunami.
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Ocean Ridges.
Formed in oceanic areas. Space between plates filled with basaltic lava from below, forming a ridge.Volcanoes also exist along ridge and may arise above sea level.
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Rift valleys.
Formed when plates move apart in continental areas. Brittle crust sometimes fractures as sections move and areas of crust drop down between parallel faults.
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Oceanic-continental plat margins.
Oceanic plate subducts continental, deep oceanic trench is formed. sees and rocks fold and uplifted along leading edge of plate. Continental crust forms mountains e.g. Andes.
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Oceanic-oceanic plate margins.
Slightly denser plate will subduct under other, forming a trench with descending plate melts, magma rises and island arcs formed. E.g. Antilles.
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Continental-continental plate margins.
Little if any subduction occurs due to similar densities, pressure and impact folds mountains e.g. the Himalayas.
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Earthquake Hazards - Liquefaction.
Violent shaking leads to saline soil lose mechanic strength, becoming loose and fluid.
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Earthquake Hazards - Tsunamis.
Giant sea wave from shallow-focus earthquakes underground as well as landslides and volcanic activity. Drawdown is when Quickly travelling ones reaching on shallow water boarding land and therefore increase in height, trough forms in low sea levels.
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Earthquake Hazards - Ground shaking/displacement.
Vertical and horizontal movement of ground with severity depending on magnitude, distance from epicentre and geology.
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Earthquake Hazards - Flooding.
from tsunamis, destabilised/destroyed dams, destroyed/lowered protective levees.
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Earthquake Hazards - Landslides/ Avalanches.
Slope failure from ground shaking/displacement.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Park Model (Stage 2)

Back

Hazardous event - use if vulnerability strategies. (relief, hours to days).

Card 3

Front

Park Model (Stage 3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Park Model (Stage 4)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Park Model (Stage 5)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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