03. Harold in Italy: movement III - Berlioz

What is programme music?
(In Berlioz's case) the use of literary themes as a basis for composition.
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When was "Harold in Italy" (this set work) composed?
1834.
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This set work was inspired by a poem. What was this poem about?
The travels and reflections of a world weary young man looking for distractions in foreign lands. This poem does not tell the story of Harold, but captures the mood of the traveller.
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What elements of the set work reflects the influence of folk music from the Abruzzi mountains?
The use of drones, modal inflections and saltarello rhythms.
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What is the prevailing texture of this piece?
Melody dominated homophony.
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From bar 1, what does the accompaniment consist of?
A double pedal on C and G in long notes in the 2nd oboe, clarinets and bassoon. The viola plays the same notes, but to a different rhythm. The bassoon maintains a pedal C throughout this section.
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What happens to the texture in bar 53?
Woodwind play the main melody, strings play a chromatic countermelody in octaves, while (second) clarinet and (first) horn provide a third part.
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What are two main features of the texture?
Use of countermelody, use of solos.
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When do the sections appear in this piece?
Section A (bars 1-31), B (bars 32-135), A (bars 136-165), Coda (bars 166-208).
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Where did scherzo derive from?
Minuet and trio.
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What do the usual subdivisions of the scherzo structure consist of?
A: ABA, B (trio): CDC
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What is the order of the sections in this piece?
ABA.
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What is the overall tonality of this piece?
C major.
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What purpose do the B flats provide?
In regards to their use in bars 15-17, they are considered modal inflections.
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Where is the brief visit to G major?
Bars 88-96.
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How is the tonality of the Allegro Assai clearly defined?
The constant tonic pedal in C in the bassoon part, and for much of the time by the double pedal (drone) in the second violas (C and G, tonic and dominant.)
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Which sort of chords are used in bar 82?
Diminished.
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What is the harmony of the Allegro Assai built on?
A tonic pedal C. With pedals, there are normally changes of harmony which create dissonance. This is seen in bar 14 with an IV chord and V7 in bar 19.
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What happens harmonically in the Serenade section? (3 points).
5 bars of C major chord I, perfect cadence in bars 46-47, and a strange progression involving chords Ic and V in A minor, but no cadence in that key.
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Which part of the serenade is more chromatic?
From bar 51, the second part, especially bars 53-59, which are very original and striking.
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Where is acciaccatura used?
Acciaccatura ornaments colour the repeated Gs in bars 27-30.
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Where is there use of melodic chromaticism?
In the passage beginning at bar 53.
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What purpose do the B♭s provide and where are they?
They are regarded as modal inflections and are found in bars 15 and 17.
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Where does the viola introduce the idee fixe?
Bar 65.
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Which metre does this piece use throughout?
6/8, compound duple.
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Where is the 3/4 idea ornamented?
In bar 132, the idea is ornamented with semiquavers.
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Which use of rhythm makes some of the notes in the bar sound like a series of mordents?
Triplet semiquavers in bar 77.
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Where is there a hint of rhythmic augmentation?
in the solo viola part at bar 192, as the semiquavers of the final motif (bars 189-191) become quavers too, to complete the phrase.
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Where do the horns play diminished chords?
Bar 83.
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Where do all strings play arco?
Bar 53.
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Where is the most demanding viola section?
From bar 99, there is use of semiquaver staccato writing with alternating pitches an octave apart.
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Where does the clarinet use its chalumeaux register?
In bar 48, the clarinet also uses broken chord figures.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When was "Harold in Italy" (this set work) composed?

Back

1834.

Card 3

Front

This set work was inspired by a poem. What was this poem about?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What elements of the set work reflects the influence of folk music from the Abruzzi mountains?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the prevailing texture of this piece?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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