Hard and soft water

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What ions make water hard (2 marks)
Magnesium and calcium
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What are the advantages of hard water (3 marks)
Good for heart, good for teeth and bones, tastes better
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Now the disadvantages... (3 marks)
Produces yucky scum, reduces efficiency of kettles/pipes, need to buy lots of soap
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Why do you need to buy more soap? (1 mark )
Hard water doesn't lather easily
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Give a detailed method of measuring hardness (6 marks!)
1. Put water in a conical flask. 2. Add soap solution to a burette. 3. Slowly add soap to the flask. 4. Swirl the mixture to help it lather. 5. Stop adding soap when a lather forms. 6. Record amount of soap needed. More soap=harder
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How can you soften water (2/3 marks)
Ion exchange column. Hard ions are swapped for soft ions e.g. sodium
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the advantages of hard water (3 marks)

Back

Good for heart, good for teeth and bones, tastes better

Card 3

Front

Now the disadvantages... (3 marks)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do you need to buy more soap? (1 mark )

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give a detailed method of measuring hardness (6 marks!)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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