Hard and Soft Water

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  • Created by: stana010
  • Created on: 11-03-14 17:43
How to tell the difference between hard and soft water
Produces a lather with soap if soft, hard water will not.
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How is hard water produced?
Contains dissolved compounds - magnesium and calcium compounds; these enter when it travels over certain rock. the two ions make water hard.
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How does hard water create scum?
It is where soap reacts with hard water and can only produce lather after getting rid of all the extra ions. Sodium stearate + calcium ions = calcium stearate + sodium ions
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How does hard water create scale?
It is an insoluble solid which reduces efficiency. This is where the hard water leaves the compound on the appliance.
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What are the two states of hard water?
Temporary - Can be softened by boiling/heating. Permanent - Remains hard even when heated/boiled.
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How can hard water be softened?
adding washing soda (sodium carbonate) Ca + CO = CaCO + Na OR Mg + CO = MgCO + Na. The second way is an Ion Exchange Columns. The water gets passed through a column filled of sodium resin. They exchange the compounds with the sodium. Water is soft.
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What happens to Temporary Hard Water when its heated?
The hard water contains hydrogen carbonate ions, that when heated decompose to carbonate ions which react with the magnesium or calcium to create a magnesium or calcium carbonate.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How is hard water produced?

Back

Contains dissolved compounds - magnesium and calcium compounds; these enter when it travels over certain rock. the two ions make water hard.

Card 3

Front

How does hard water create scum?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does hard water create scale?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the two states of hard water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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