Hard engineering, soft engineering, managed retreat.

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  • Created by: hamishc
  • Created on: 25-04-16 17:58
Hard engineering.
.
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What are sea walls?
Curved, straight or stepped concrete walls that expand along the coast-line, designed to reduce erosion and flooding. They are ugly. Very affective, high set-up cost, and high maintenance costs, also cause backwash which can undercut the sea wall.
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What are groynes?
Low lying wooden walls that extend out to sea, designed to catch sediment be transported away via long-shore drift, creating a larger distance for waves to travel. Low set- up, low maintenance, however lack of sediment down-drift (promontory effect).
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What is rock armour?
Rocks put against the base of the cliff, absorb incoming destructive wave erosion, high set-up, low maintenance, more visually appealing, however, boulders liable to being moved by sea.
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What are gabions?
Bundles of rock in a metal mesh placed at the foot of cliffs, designed to absorb wave energy to prevent the cliff from being undercut. Very cheap, however, not very affective and very unsightly.
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Soft engineering.
.
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What is beach replenishment?
Sediment dredged from elsewhere is pumped onto the beach, replacing eroded material, increases distance waves travel. High set-up (dredging expensive), low maintenance, however, requires removal of sediment from other areas (erosion in other areas).
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What is beach re-profiling?
Bulldozers push material back up to the beach crest, more vertical shape means the beach absorbs erosion more affectively. High set-up (bulldozers are heavy machinery), low maintenance, can help maintain existing defences.
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What is beach stabilisation?
Done by planting vegetation which helps stabilise sediment and capture blowing sand (promoting dune development), increasing distance waves travel, reducing erosive power. Low set-up, low maintenance.
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What is fencing?
Wooden fences are erected on the crest of the beach to prevent sand from the beach being blown inland, therefore maintaining the beach. Medium set up costs, low maintenance
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Managed retreat.
.
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What is managed retreat?
The abandonment of existing defences, allowing the sea to flood inland, flooded areas become salt marshes, providing a natural defence against storms whilst promoting biodiversity. Inexpensive, not appropriate for areas with farmland or developments.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are sea walls?

Back

Curved, straight or stepped concrete walls that expand along the coast-line, designed to reduce erosion and flooding. They are ugly. Very affective, high set-up cost, and high maintenance costs, also cause backwash which can undercut the sea wall.

Card 3

Front

What are groynes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is rock armour?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are gabions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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