Haig's offences

When did Haig become BEF commander?
December 1915, he replaced sir John French
1 of 35
What were Haig's roles as commander?
Direct offensives, oversee the supply system, liaise with French commander and deal with the British government
2 of 35
What do critics say about Haig?
Said he was unimaginative (wasteful frontal assaults) and had no consideration for soldier welfare.
3 of 35
What do supporters of Haig say?
Said he has keen responses to new technology (eg the tank) and he has a good ability to learn from previous mistakes.
4 of 35
When Haig replaced French, what problems did he face?
Poorly trained army (due to them being volunteers) , disagreed with some generals such as Plumer as they wanted to be less ambitious, trench warfare was new so everyone was learning, inexperienced corps commanders.
5 of 35
Impact of the battle of the somme
Expanded warfare as the somme stretched 15 miles. Huge casualty numbers so were now fewer men to fight and the ones that were left suffered psychological impacts. People now started asking questions about how the war was being conducted etc.
6 of 35
what was the public opinion towards the war after the battle of the somme?
Became more negative as so many casualties and more people now wanted peace. Made many people realise the battle would be long.
7 of 35
Haig at the battle of the somme
He faced hard German defence but thought gains could be made with a lot of artillery. Battle made soldiers more 'battle hardened'. Haig continued the offences during winter which was hell for the soldiers.
8 of 35
What reasons did British attacks fail at the battle of the somme?
German entrenchment, lack of big guns and German strong will to fight.
9 of 35
What problem was exposed during the battle of the somme?
communication and technology issues, Haig often made decisions using out of date information.
10 of 35
Key battle of the somme statistics
First day of battle there was 58,000 British casualties. 300,000 French casualties from Feb to July
11 of 35
How much land did the BEF gain by the November 1916?
6 miles of land for 420,000 casualties
12 of 35
When did the battle of the somme start and end?
Started July 1916 and ended November 1916
13 of 35
Why did Haig think the battle of Passchendaele would be successful?
Allies had superiority in armaments, USA had now entered the war, Nivelle planned ambitious French offensive, Germans were close to exhaustion
14 of 35
When did the USA enter the war?
April 1917
15 of 35
Why did the Passcendaele offensive fail?
Overly ambitious plan, very wet weather, Haig continued with the assault despite the muddy conditions
16 of 35
Key points of the battle of Passcendaele
Started with a textbook capture of Messines ridge. Creeping barrage used a lot, bite and hold tactics used a lot. Passcedaele ridge wasn't fully captured.
17 of 35
What was the significance of the Battle of Passcendaele?
Russia had to agree peace with Germany, Haig showed tactical initiative, Haig complained his army was overstretched, tanks were a possibility due to lack of man power, poor planning.
18 of 35
What impact did the Passcendale offensive have?
New and improved tactics were now being used so easier for Britain to win the war. Realised Haig needs to be more empathetic towards soldiers.
19 of 35
When was the first tank used?
15 September 1916, used at Flers.
20 of 35
Why was the government unhappy about using tanks?
Because they were a huge strategic surprise and its was revealed with making little gain.
21 of 35
How many tanks were used at the Battle of Cambrai in Nov 1917 and were they effective?
400+ tanks were used and they were effective as this time they achieved a tactical surprise.
22 of 35
How were aircraft and tanks use together?
Aircrafts were used to hide the loud noises of the tanks
23 of 35
What happened when the tank went to war?
First few days 5 miles were advanced in tanks and German morale was severely hit.
24 of 35
Why did the gains made my the tanks get lost?
Due to the British finding it hard to time and physically move infantry reserve to support the tanks. Germans quickly learnt anti-tank defences using artillery and heavy rifles.
25 of 35
What was the hundred day offensive?
The decisive allied attack of the war
26 of 35
What was the German Spring Offensive and what was its impact?
When the Germans tried to win before the USA fully joined the war by using the gains from Russia. however, the offensive overstretched German logistics, exhausted manpower and demoralised the germans.
27 of 35
When did the BEF launch its counter attack at Amiens?
August 1918
28 of 35
What happened during the Amiens counter attack?
500 tanks secretly deployed combined with effective artillery and tactics. Co ordinated artillery, aircraft, engineers and infantry which pushed the Germans back.
29 of 35
What happened to the British equipment that was lost during the German offensive?
It was replaced so BEF had plenty of supplies. 10,700 new artillery pieces and 65,000 tons of gas shells for example.
30 of 35
How had German guns been identified by the British?
British used flash spotting, sound ranging and aerial reconnaissance. identified 95% of them.
31 of 35
What were infantry battalions equipped with?
Had 30 lewis guns, rifle grenades and men specifically trained to use them.
32 of 35
Who did Haig employ for the hundred day offensive?
Employed Australian and Canadian divisions as shock troops, they were trained in infiltration, not frontal assaults.
33 of 35
What were attacks like after Amiens?
They were carefully coordinated, they attacked where the German line was weak and called it off when German defences became too strong and then they would strike in another weak spot.
34 of 35
What happened by the end of October?
the German government were wanting peace
35 of 35

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What were Haig's roles as commander?


Direct offensives, oversee the supply system, liaise with French commander and deal with the British government

Card 3


What do critics say about Haig?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do supporters of Haig say?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


When Haig replaced French, what problems did he face?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The British Empire and the fall of colonialism resources »