Growth of war

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Hitlers four stages of foreign policy 1
1 Revisionism, 2 Grossdeutchland 3 Autarky 4 France to turn eastwards
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Key dats os German foreign policy in action 2 2
− October 1933: Germany leaves the League of Nations, gives Hitler and the Germans freedom − January 1934: Germany and Poland sign a 10 year Non-Aggression pact, highlights Germany peaceful intention, puts the Polish into a false sense of security an
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Key dats os German foreign policy in action 2 3
− March 1935: Reintroduction of Conscription and Britain and France take no action − March 1936: Remilitarisation of the Rhineland, Germany’s strategic position is improved − April 1937: Guernica, Bombed to nothing by German Aircraft
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Mussolini info 4
• Benito Mussolini became the Prime Minister of Italy on the 31st October 1922, and by 1929 he had set up a corporate state • During the 1920’s they made significant economic and social gains such as: expansion in primary and secondary education,
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Mussolini firing policy aims 5
1. Military power: sought to pursue rearmament, conscription and military strength in a similar way to Hitler 2. Italian Empire: a revival of the glory of the Roman Empire, dreams of turning the Mediterranean Sea into an Italian lake Major European p
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Mussolini foreign policy in action 6
− October 1925: The Locarno Treaty, guarantees west European frontiers − 1928: Abyssinian affairs, Mussolini signs a friendship treaty with Abyssinia − April 1935: the Stresa Front, Britain, France and Italy form a common front against any future Ger
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Mussolini foreign policy in action 7
− February 1937: Italy leaves the league of Nations − May 1939: Pact of Steel, Italy and Germany sign an alliance
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Successes of LON 8
• Yugoslavia ended its invasion of Albania in 1921 when threatened with international sanctions, a clash between Greece and Bulgaria in 1925 was ended with League intervention, dealing with the administration of the Saar and Danzig’, stateless refuge
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Failures of LON 9
Allied intervention in Russia in 1919 was ignored by the League, Italy ignored the League in 1923, the League failed to deal with issues outside of Europe and several issues were not allowed to be presented to the league
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Reasons for failure 10
1. The League operated on the idea of ‘internationalism’, where all countries were focused on nationalism 2. The aim of disarmament was flawed as it called for disarmament level consistent with national safety. That level was interpreted as more tha
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Reasons for failure 11
1. Countries did not want to be involved with conflict that had nothing to do with them 2. The League became seen as backing the interest of established powers 3. The League was only as strong as its members, this didn’t reflect the true world balanc
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Abyssinia 12
• 3rd October 1935, Italy launched a full scale attack on Abyssinia. The League of Nations attempted to the persuade Abyssinia to accept border changes. • Both France and Britain chose not to take action against Italy as they were more concerned with
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Abs impact 13
• proved the concept of collective security was dead, was the death of the Stresa front, encouraged Hitler that he could get away with acts of aggression, transformed Italy into Germany’s partner and the Hoare-Laval plan made it clear Britain and Fra
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AJP route on ABs 14
AJP Taylor: “this was the death blow to the League as well as to Abyssinia”
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Appeasement info 15
• Appeasement had been in operation since 1919, Lloyd George sought the moderate the Treaty of Versailles realising the British economy needed a stable and prosperous Germany
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Factors egging appeasement 16
1. The League of Nations and idea of collective security was dead 2. Britain armed forces were run down, British believed appeasement gave them the chance to rearm 3. Britain’s main partner was France who were faced with internal divisions, maginot
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Factors egging appeasement 17
1. Britain was preoccupied with domestic matters, unemployment was high 2. Dread of another war, new technology would make future wars worse Hitler was admired by some in Britain, as he brought discipline to his country and provided defence against c
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Appesment dates 18
− October 1933: German rearmament, Germany played up the fear of communism − March 1935: Germany introduces conscription, mild protest by Britain − March 1938: Austria, Britain accepted ‘Anschluss’ as inevitable
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Appesment dates 19
− September 1938: The Czechoslovak Crisis, the Munich Conference. Hitler’s demand for the Sudetenland was given, for war to be avoided • The Munich agreement was dissolved, once Germany took over the rest of Czechoslovakia and Mussolini annexed Alban
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Appeasement dates 20
• Invasion of Czech, March 1939: Policy of Appeasement came to an end in March 1939 – Hitler proceeded to take over rest of Czech. Western democracies realised Hitler could only be stopped by military force. Invasion of Poland 1939 – Britain + France
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Historical view on appeasement 21
Historical opinion: historians continue to try and justify the policy of appeasement 1935-1938, immediate aftermath of war – appeasement regarded as ‘surrender in the face of Hitler’s blackmail’, view shared by number of wartime politicians Churchill
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Quute on appeasemnt 22
David Dilks: “[Chamberlain believed that] Germany had a genuine case for revision of the Treaty of Versailles and fully understood that the possession of military strength was fundamental to a successful foreign policy.”
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Quute on appeasemnt 23
John Wheeler-Bennet: “[Chamberlain] failed to confront the moral issues inherent in negotiating with an openly aggressive dictator.”
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Key dats os German foreign policy in action 2 2

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− October 1933: Germany leaves the League of Nations, gives Hitler and the Germans freedom − January 1934: Germany and Poland sign a 10 year Non-Aggression pact, highlights Germany peaceful intention, puts the Polish into a false sense of security an

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Key dats os German foreign policy in action 2 3

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Mussolini info 4

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Mussolini firing policy aims 5

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