Great War- Economic impacts during and after the war

How did the government centralise control of the economy at the start of the war?
Requisitioned merchant ships, took over railways, nationalised coal mines
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How did the trade unions aid the war effort at the start of the war?
Declared an industrial truce for the whole war (no strikes)
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What did the Trade unions fear the most from the employment of women?
Dilution due to unskilled workers replacing skilled ones (could lower wages)
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What was the Treasury Agreement?
Government promised a restoration of the pre-war economy after the war, restricted factory profits, set up joint committees so unions had a say
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When was the Treasury Agreement?
1915
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What act restricted workers in 1915?
Munitions of War Act
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What were the restrictions of the Munitions of War Act? (4)
Dilution introduction compulsory, no strikes, absentee fines, leaving certificates
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Why did the Unions accept the Munitions of War Act? (2)
Government promised reasonable minimum wage, favoured Union labour
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How many 'controlled establishments' (state-owned factories) were there during the war?
20,000
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What was 'costing'?
Manufacturers got the cost of production plus reasonable profits
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Why did the suffragettes agree to cease campaigns?
Government allowed women to work
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By what percentage did the number of munitionettes increase during the war?
91%
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By what percentage did the number of women in employment increase during the war?
22.5%
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What work did most women do during the war?
Domestic work
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Why was women's employment only designed to be temporary?
Men would return home after the war and women would have to give up their jobs
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What made women unequal to men in the workplace?
Earned less for the same job
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Why were there strikes in 1916?
Skilled engineers conscripted
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What did the 1916 strikes lead to?
Trade Cards Agreement
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What was the Trade Cards Agreement?
Allowed union to decide exemption of engineers
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Why did strikes continue in 1917?
Trade Cards Agreement rejected by the people
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What did the government do after the Trade Cards Agreement failed in order to end strikes?
Fixed food prices, 12.5% bonus for skilled workers, leaving certificates abolished, set up Reconstruction Ministry
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What was the impact of war on the Trades Unions?
Increased membership
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By what proportion was strike action reduced during the war?
1/4
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How did Lloyd George help encourage professional production?
Employed professionals to head economic ministries
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What was 'war socialism'?
Controls on production by the government during war
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How many merchant ships did requisitioning take out of trade by 1915?
1/4
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What was merchant ship production reduced by in 1915 since the pre-war value?
2/3
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What was the impact of requisitioning and merchant ship reductions?
Less profit, so less income to pay for the war
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What measures were taken to increase merchant shipping in 1916/17?
Ship-building programme, skilled builders brought back from service
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When did tonnage of ships newly built exceed tonnage sunk by U-boats?
June 1917
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What was the role of the Priority Committee set up in 1918? (2)
Reduce imports, grade goods according to national importance
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How much British food was imported in 1914?
60%
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By 1916, how much had food prices increased since 1914?
60%
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What measures were taken from 1916 to increase agricultural output at home?
Agricultural labourers exempt from conscription 1917, Corn Production Act 1917, Food Control Ministry 1918
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What did the Corn Production Act of 1917 do?
Converted pasture and parkland to arable land
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By what percentage did wheat output increase during the war?
65%
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What was the role of the Food Control Ministry?
Rationing and bread price controls
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What did the average calorific content of the diet drop by in the war?
3%
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What did the government do to reduce alcohol consumption during the war?
Weakened beer, purchased pubs and breweries, reduced pub opening hours, prohibited sale of alcohol to under 18s
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What was the effect of reducing alcohol consumption?
Improved health, increased productivity?
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How did reduced hours create more production?
Reduced accidents and absenteeism
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What were provided for factory workers?
Houses, canteens, subsidised creches
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What department was set up in 1916 for technological improvements?
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research
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What military technology developments were there during the war?(9)
Tanks, fuse 106, chemical weapons, machine guns, plane improvements, automatic cameras, telescopic sights, mills bombs, hydraulic barrels
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What medical technology developments were there in the war?(7)
Food preservation for increased nutrition, blood transfusion, X-rays, medicine, antiseptics, anaesthetics, skin grafting
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What was used to pay for the war? (2)
Loans, taxes, printing money
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What changes to taxes were made during the war? (5)
Income tax increased, exemption limit lowered, supertax increased, EPD (Excess Profits Duty) on war profits, 33% tax on luxuries
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What was the benefit of direct taxation?
Appeased the workers because it didn't increase living costs
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What did printing of money lead to?
Inflation, increased goods prices
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Why did the British continue to take US loans even though they knew this would lead to economic dependence on the US?
Preferable to defeat
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How did the economy keep afloat during the war?
Export prices increased
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How did Britain show that it wasn't going bankrupt any time soon?
Loaned money to allies
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How did the trade unions aid the war effort at the start of the war?

Back

Declared an industrial truce for the whole war (no strikes)

Card 3

Front

What did the Trade unions fear the most from the employment of women?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the Treasury Agreement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When was the Treasury Agreement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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