Great Invertebrate Inventions

What re the morphological features of vertebrates?
Anterior skull with large brain, rigid internal skeleton supported by a vertebral column, individual vertebrae have arches to protect spinal cord, internal organs suspended in coelom, well-developed circulatory system, driven by heart, separate sexes
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What replaces the notochord in vertebrates?
The vertebral column
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Name some basic inventions of vertebrates
Cartilage, bone, vertebrae, cranium, jaws
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Cartilage
Flexible connective tissue, semi-rigid skeletal elements and sliding surfaces of joints, fibres of collagen and elastin in cellular matrix, stiffening gill arches improved gill pumping, cranium protects brain
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Bone
Protein matrix plus mineral crystals, mineral is hydroxyapatite, calcium and phosphorus, unique to vertebrates, correlate with lactic acid and production (more resistant to acid than calcium carbonate- like in molluscs and other invertebrates)
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Vertebrae
Protects spinal cord, articulate with each other, attachments for muscle and appendages
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Cranium
The skull, protects the brain
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Jawless fish
Hagfish and lampreys, no jaws but cartilage gill arches
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Early fish jaws
Extinct placoderms, anterior gill arches thickened and relocated to mouth
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Modern jawed fish
More gill arches form strong jaws with teeth
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What are unique development features in vertebrates?
Hox genes and new germ layers
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Hox genes
Control pattern of development of different body parts, in vertebrates many duplications occurred, enables many diverse regulatory interactions during development
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New germ layers
In addition to the endoderm ectoderm and mesoderm, neutral crest (building structures, including cranial nerves), placodes (ectodermal thickenings, builds nose, eyes, inner ear, teeth)
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Class- Chondrichthyes
Sharks and rays, cartilaginous fish, paired fins, heterocercal tail (unequal), 5 gills protected by operculum, 2 chambered heart, swim bladder, external fertilisation, complex behaviours, electroreceptors
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Class- Bony fish
Paired fins, homocercal tail (equal), 5 gills protected by operculum, 2 chambered heart, swim bladder, external fertilisation, complex behaviours in some)
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Sub-class- Actinopterygii
"Ray-finned fish", most fish, fins are webs of skin supported by several rays, each attached to body
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Sub-class- Sarcopterygii
"Lobe-finned fish", fleshy lobed scaly fins attached to body by single bone, 2 deep-sea coelacanths and 6 freshwater fish, ancient relatives thought to give rise to tetrapods (4 legged land vertebrates)
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Amphibia (first tetrapods to evolve)
"Both lives, almost all adults are damp terrestrial, larvae live in fresh water, 3 chambered heart, adults have lungs ventilated by buccal pumping and larvae have gills, skin plays role in gas exchange , most mate in water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What replaces the notochord in vertebrates?

Back

The vertebral column

Card 3

Front

Name some basic inventions of vertebrates

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cartilage

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Bone

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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