What are the four stages of a product life cycle?
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Gap in market-new product launched.Expensive at first as designer needs to be paid and need money for advertising.
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Sales increase if product is successful.Manufacture costs go down as they're mass produced.Profits increase,competitors introduce similar products.
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Product well known,sales high but there are more competitors.Products price may be reduced.Fewer new customers.
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Sales fall,profits shrink.Product replaced with new one.Goes back to beginning.
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What is obsolence?
When products can become out of date or break, consumer has to replace product.
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What do designers sometimes do?
Deliberately design stuff so it becomes useless quickly, e.g. poor quality,make it hard to repair,go out of fashion quickly.
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What are the advantages of planned obsolence?
1)Drives innovation.2)Keeps designers and manufacturers in jobs.
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What are the disadvantages of planned obsolence?
1)Consumers may get annoyed if products break.2)Not good for environment-uses resources,causes pollution.
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What is ACCESS FM?
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What does ergonomics mean?
Making a product easy and comfortable for people to use.
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How can lettering be made ergonomic?
Must be legible, correct size and clear.
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Why might texture be important in terms of ergonomics?
If a product needs to be gripped, texture might be important.
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Why might weight be important in terms of ergonomics?
If product needs to be moved or carried, needs to be light.
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What is anthropometric data?
Considering body measurements of user to make the product the right size.
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Can be 2D or 3D drawings done by hand or using CAD(computer aided design).Sketch-up shows virtual 3D model from all angles.3D models can be hand made and scaled down to check shape of design.
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Usually full scale,made of cheap materials(card,paper or clay).Might make mock-up to check a net or design.
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Full scale,working mock-up, include mechanisms and components, made using right materials and methods.Could have limited features but are for testing purposes.
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What are the names of 6 influential graphic designers?
1)Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert.2)Harry Beck.3)Alberto Alessi.4)Robert Sabuda.5)Whalley Ollins.
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What did Kinneir and Calvert do?
Invent road signs-used curvy letters that drivers can read easily. Also designed pictograms for warning signs.
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What did Beck do?
Maps and systematic drawings.Designed London underground map using straight lines running vertically, horizontally or at 45 degrees. Layout is simple, colours for each line.Other maps designed in this style.
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What did Alessi do?
Product design-idea was to produce simple products but keep them stylish and fun.Designs always distinctive and often colourful.
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What did Sabuda do?
Paper engineering-folding and cutting paper to create models that unfold and move. Known for making pop-up books.
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What did Ollins do?
Corporate identity. Designed logos and images that make a company recognisable e.g. Starbucks logo and the 2012 Olympics logo.
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When is paper classed as paper?
Under 200gsm (grams per square metre).
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What are 4 different types of paper?
1)Cartridge paper.2)Layout paper.3)Bleed proof paper.4)Tracing paper.
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What is cartridge paper like?
Good for sketching and is textured.
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What is layout paper like?
Thin and translucent,used for general design work.
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What is bleed proof paper like?
Used when drawing with felt tips or markers-doesn't bleed/
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What is tracing paper like?
Translucent, used to trace images-more expensive than layout.
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When is board classed as board?
When it's above 200 gsm(grams per square metre).
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What are 5 types of board?
1)White board.2)Mount board.3)Corrugated board.4)Duplex board.5)Grey board.
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What is white board like?
High quality bleached surface, used for packaging.
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What is mount board used for?
Used to mount drawings and photos.
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What is corrugated board like?
Fluted inner core ans 2 outer layers.Lightweight and strong.
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What is duplex board like?
Different colour or material on each side.One surface smooth for prinitng.
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What is grey board like?
Rigid and easy to cover.Used for board games,book covers and ring binders.
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What are environmental issues of paper and board?
White card uses bleach-can damage environment.
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Why is paper and board good for the environment?
1)Lot of board made from recycled paper.2)Fairly sustainable if wood pulp comes from managed forests.
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Name 6 adhesives.
1)PVA.2)Double sided tape.3)Glue stick.4)Masking tape.5)Glue gun.6)Adhesive spray.
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What are 5 fastenings.
1)Drawing pins.2)Mapping pins.3)Dressmakers pins.4)Paper clips.5)Rubber bands.
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What are thermoset-plastics?
Can't be reshaped or remoulded once heated up.Used in electrical and cooking materials.
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What is an example of a thermoset-plastic?
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What is formaldehyde?
Good electrical insulator,resists chemicals,hard-used in circuit boards,plugs,kettles etc.
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What are thermoplastics?
Can be reshaped and heated many times.
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What are 6 examples of thermoplastics?
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What is acetate?
Flexible,transparent,thin, can print on.
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What is HIPS?
High impact polystyrene-rigid,variety of colours,vacuum forming.
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What is PVC?
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What is PP?
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What is acrylic used for?
Signs,covers for car lights and baths.
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What is ABS used for?
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What are environmental issues with plastics?
1)Not biodegradable.2)Made from finite resources(oil).3)Pollution from processing and transportation.4)Energy used in processing, extracting.
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Why are plastics good for the environment?
The can be recycled and reused.
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What are 3 materials used for modelling?
1)Corrugated plastic sheet.2)Expanded polystyrene)Machining foam.
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Why is corrugated plastic sheet used for modelling?
Lightweight,impact resistant,waterproof,modelling objects with large flat surface.
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Why is expanded polystyrene used for modelling?
Lightweight,shape with craft knife or hot wire cutter.Needs surface filling before painting.
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Why is machining foam used for?
More compact and less crumbly, can be painted.
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Describe spiral wound tubing.
1)Made from paper wound in a spiral,held together with glue.2)Strong and lightweight.
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What are composite materials?
Made up of more than one material.
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What are 3 examples of composite materials?
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Tetra packaging,made from aluminium,card and polystyrene.Keeps flavours in and air out e.g. drink carton.
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Paper can be coated with polythene to make it waterproof e.g. paper cups.
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Foam core board made by laminating polystyrene between card.
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What are good environmental things about composite materials?
Can be recycled.
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What are environmental issues with composite materials?
Have to be separated before they are recycled.
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What are smart materials?
React to changes in the environment, such as temperature, light.
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What are 4 types of smart materials?
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What are thermochromic pigments?
They react to changes in temperature(thermometers,food packaging).
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What are photochromic pigments?
React to changes in light levels (Sunglasses).
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What is phosphorescent?
Reacts to light (glow in the dark).
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What is hydrochromic?
Reacts to water (colour changing umbrella).
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What are 7 modern materials?
1)Cornstarch.2)Potatopak.3)Paper foam.4)Precious metal clay.5)Polymorph.6)Holographic paper.7)Lenticular sheet.
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What is cornstarch?
Made from maize, can be made in clear,flexible form for sandwich packaging.
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What is potatopak?
Made from potato starch, baked inside moulds.Fairly rigid,makes food packaging.
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What is paper foam?
Potato starch and paper fibres.Can make phone,DVD and CD packaging.
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What is precious metal clay?
Contains particles of metal (often silver) in a binding material.Used to make jewellery.Clay easy to roll out and work with,clay heated and metal fuses together to make solid metal object.Can then be polished.
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What is polymorph?
A modelling material that can be bought in pellets.When in warm water-goes soft and malleable, can be moulded into shape and sets when cooled.
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What are four special techniques used?
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Protection and enhancement.Low cost.Easy process.Solvent evaporates to leave transparent layer.
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Protection and enhancement.Expensive.Plastic film applied on both sides.
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Visual effect.Expensive.Requires special press tools.Shape pressed using steel.
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Describe foil application.
Enhancement on work.Expensive.Design stamped on a material through metal foil.
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What are moulds?
A hollow container used to give shape to hot liquid material when it cools and hardens.Can be made from MDF.
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What are jigs?
A manufactured piece that ensures parts are identically made.
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What are templates?
Something you can draw around to to mark a shape so it can be cut or shaped.E.g. clothes.
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What are formers?
Used to make sure parts are exactly the same.
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What is a french curve?
Helps you to draw curves.
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What are scissors?
Used to cut paper or card.
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What is a craft knife?
Used to cut paper and card.
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What is a T square?
For drawing 90 degree lines.
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What is a set square?
For drawing lines at 45 or 30 degrees.
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What is a compass?
Used to draw a perfect circle.
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What is a compass cutter?
Cut a circle out of paper and card.
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What is a coping saw?
Used to cut MDF or plywood.
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What is a rotary cutter?
Cuts curves in paper or card.
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What is a guillotine?
Cuts large sheets of paper-multiple at a time.
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What is a hot wire cutter?
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What is a safety mat?
Used when cutting with a craft knife.
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What is a metal ruler used for?
To cut paper and card.
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What is a strip heater?
Used to heat a line in plastic for bending.
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What is a protractor?
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What is a creasing tool?
Used to create folds accurately.
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What do thick and thin lines show on drawings?
Thick=adjoining surfaces.Thin=Used when only one side can be seen.
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Describe how to draw by crating.
1)Draw box.2)gradually add bits.3)Draw object in box.4)Details can be added by adding more geometric shapes.
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How can wood be drawn?
Using coloured pencils to represent grain.
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How can tone be shown?
By using shadows,patters of lines or dots.
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How are shades of grey used in drawing?
Used to show reflection and represent a metal effect.
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What is isometric projection?
A design of a 3D shape on a 2D surface-uses vertical lines and lines drawn at a 30 degree horizontal.
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Why do we draw in isometric?
So designs can be seen from different angles-good for showing measurements.
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Describe how to draw one point perspective.
1)Draw vanishing point.2)Draw front of shape.3)Draw construction lines.
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Describe how to draw two point perspective.
1)Draw front,vertical edge.2)Draw construction lines to meet vanishing points.
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Describe how to draw orthographic.
1)Draw front view.2)Add construction lines to draw plan(top) view.3)Add construction lines to the right draw end(side) view.
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Describe how to draw an exploded view.
Shows how product fits together.1)Draw product with separate parts moved out like they've exploded.2)Dotted lines to show where exploded parts came from.
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Describe scale enlargement.
1:2=Drawing is half size.1:4=drawing is quarter size.2:1 means drawing is double the size.1:1=drawing is full sized.
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Describe cross sectional drawings.
Shows what the product would look like if you cut it in two.1)front view shows where cut had been made.2)Hatched lines show where product has been cut.
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What are the primary colours?
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What are secondary colours?
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What are the meanings of dark blue?
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What are the meanings of light blue?
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What are the meanings of green?
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What are the meanings of yellow?
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What are the meanings of purple?
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What are the meanings of pink?
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What are the meanings of red?
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What are the meanings of orange?
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What are the meanings of brown?
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What are the meanings of grey?
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What are the meanings of white?
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What are the meanings of black?
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What is digital printing?
Done using inkjet and laser printers.No costs after set up(except ink cartridges).
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What is digital printing used for?
To print posters,flyers,digital photos.Prints small amounts (1-100).
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What is colour separation?
Anything made up of the four printing colours.When you send document to print,printer recognises 4 colours to make required image.
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What are the four printing colours?
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What are printing marks?
Check quality of print out.
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What are registration marks?
Check position of plates are correct.(looks like circle with + through).
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What are colour bars?
Show density that CYMK will print.
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What are crop marks?
Show where you should cut sheet once it's printed.
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What are the 4 types of printing?
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What is lithography?
1)Uses oil based inks and water,works on principle that oil and water don't mix.2)UV light used to transfer image onto smooth aluminium plate.3)Image area coated with chemical that attracts oily ink but repels water.
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What is lithography used for?
1000+ copies,such as books,magazines,newspapers,packaging in high quality.
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What is flexography?
1)Uses image on flexible printing plates made of rubber.2)Image sticks out from plate.3)Can be used to print on many different materials that aren't completely flat e.g. cellophane,cardboard or plastic bottles.
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What is flexography used for?
Large amounts (over 5000) such as carrier bags,wallpaper and packaging.
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What is screen printing?
1)Screen made from mesh fixed to wooden frame.2)Stencil placed under screen and ink spread through stencil onto material below.3)Best for blocks of colour.
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What is screen printing used for?
Print small amounts (under 100) of posters,t-shirts and shop signage.Low costs.
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What is gravure?
1)Uses etched brass printing plate.2)Image made of small holes in surface of printing plate.3)Holes filled with ink and excess removed.4)Paper comes into contact with ink in holes when pressed against plate.
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What is gravure used for?
Expensive to set up-very fast.1 million+. Stamps,catalogues and magazines.
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What is bold text used for?
Make words stand out.
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What is serif text used for?
On traditional pieces of text.
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What is display text used for?
Displayed items like posters or signs.
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What is italic text used for?
Stress important words or quotes.
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What is sans serif text used for?
More modern text.
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What is script used for?
Fancy designs to make them look expensive.
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What is one off production?
Made for particular purpose or to be unique,e.g. large sculptures or small hand made products.
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What is batch production?
1)For products that may not be in demand all the time e.g.souvenir tea towel.2)Also used for products where design is important,e.g. high end sports cars to keep them exclusive.
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What is mass production?
E.g. washing machine.It's a functional product with an element to make it stand out and attract buyer.Competition from different manufactures,hundreds of thousands made.
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What is continuous production?
E.g. tablet containers.Made as blanks for many manufacturers add to own designs or labels at later stage,Purely functional and produced in millions.
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What is JIT?
Just In Time.Company will order enough materials for their exact needs,nothing stored or taking up space.Money saved in transport and storage.
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What is quality assurance?
Plans for any project must include what everyone should be doing to ensure the product is fit for purpose and is high quality.
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What is quality control?
1)Measures in QA plan, they are the tests and checks carried out during production.2)All checks recorded every step so QA manager has all data.3)Very accurate measuring equipment e.g. digital micrometers used in industry.
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What is tolerance?
An acceptable range of accuracy.QA manager agrees tolerance with clients.Can range between 0.001mm(Car engines),0.05mm.
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What is a net?
A 2D plan for a 3D object. Also called surface developments.
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What do solid and dotted lines mean when drawing nets?
Solid=show edges to cut.Dotted=show edges to fold.
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What are benefits of nets?
1)Great modelling ideas.2)Produce 3D model quickly.3)Cheap to manufacture.
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What is CAD?
Computer aided design-designing of products on a computer.
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What is CAM?
Computer aided manufacture.Manufacture of products using machinery and computers.
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What is CAM-2D design?
Nets in industry made using 2D design good as it can easily be amended until it's correct.
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What is CAM-die cutter?
1)Once net is designed,pressed out using dye cutter.2)Using CAM is good as it's more accurate and quicker than by hand.
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What are advantages of CAD and CAM?
1)Results consistent.2)High accuracy.3)Quicker production.4)Don't need lot of staff.
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What are disadvantages of CAD and CAM?
1)Software expensive-initial costs high.2)Staff need to be trained.3)Not everyone has computer.
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What are the functions of packaging?
1)To preserve product e.g. food packaging sealed to stop food expiring.2)Protect product from damage using durable materials.3)Make more attractive to consumer so they'll purchase it.4)Easier to transport product e.g. stacking.
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How are products protected during transportation?
Cardboard or polystyrene used as it's strong enough to protect from knocks.
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Describe packaging and storage.
Products stored in warehouses and shelves, must be strong enough to hold weight when stacked.Must be well designed to fit neatly together.
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Describe packaging and security.
Electrical equipment may contain anti-theft devices and tamper seals.
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Describe packaging and product information.
Sell by dates,ingredients,allergies,symbols etc.
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Appear on computer screens as shortcuts to software,files or program tools.Icons usually small and easily recognisable.
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What do signs in circles usually mean?
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What do signs in triangles mean?
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What do blue signs mean?
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What are pictograms?
Used on signs instead of text as they can be understood in any language and are quick to read.Simple and easily recognisable.
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What does TM do?
Protect the design of a logo/brand/company name.Expensive to register-designs have to be 2D.
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What is copyright?
It protects written,theatrical,musical and artistic work as well as film,book layouts,sound recordings and broadcasts.Automatic right-don't need to apply for it.
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What are patents?
Protect methods and processes that make things work.Have to apply and can be expensive.
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What is sustainability?
A design that does not cause permanent damage to the environment and does not use up finite resources.
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What are renewable materials?
Grown from plants or animals.
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What are non-renewable materials?
Taken from oil and minerals and can't be replaced.
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What are hazards and control measures for craft knives?
Hazards-cuts caused by careless use.Control-hold work correctly,use safety ruler,use cutting mat.
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What are hazards and control measures for paper drills?
Hazards-Cuts caused by careless use,puncture wounds by broken drill bits.Control-Cutting mat,check drill bits aren't damaged,clean drill bits.
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What are hazards and control measures for scissors?
Hazards-cuts caused by careless use.Control-hold work,carry with blade enclosed.
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What are hazards and control measures for a sanding disk?
Hazards-flying debris,dust,hands in contact with abrasive surface.Control-Safety goggles,apron,dust extraction,hold work firmly,hold work flat,don't sand shot pieces of material.
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What are hazards and control measures for a fretsaw?
Hazard-flying debris,hands in contact with blade,dust.Control-Safety goggles,apron,extraction,hold work flat.
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What are the 6 R's?
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What can we reduce?
The amount of energy and materials used to manufacture products.
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What can we reuse?
The product for something else so you don't need to throw it away.
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What can we recycle?
Take the product apart and categorise the parts to be converted into another product.
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What can we repair?
Repair the product so you don't meed to throw it away.
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What can we rethink?
Our lifestyle and the way we design and make.
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What can we refuse?
To buy materials and products that are unsustainable.
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What is corporate identity?
Image the company wants the consumer to have of the company.
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What is branding?
Memorable graphics good way to make consumers recognise products.Strong branding mean consumers recognise company from its logo without words.
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What is moral responsibility?
Companies want customers to view company as morally responsible, so should consider materials that don't harm environment,
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What is social responsibility?
Designers need to be sensitive to views of different people in society to make sure people aren't offended.
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Describe strip heaters and their uses.
1)Used to bend thermoplastics.2)Bent using strip heater that will heat plastic in straight line so it can be bent by hand.E.g. signs.
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Describe injection moulding and its uses.
1)Metal mould used and softenedor molten plastic is forced into mould2)Mould made in two parts to allow moulding to be removed.E.g.toys,trays,chairs.
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Describe blow moulding and its uses.
1)Parison inserted into mould.2)Base of parison squeezed by mould.3)Air blown into parison,parison expands to fill mould.E.g.plastic bottles,buckets,
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Describe vacuum forming and give examples.
1)Plastic placed over mould.2)Plastic heated.3)Air in mould removed by vacuum.e.g.food packaging,trays,bathtubs.
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Other cards in this set
Gap in market-new product launched.Expensive at first as designer needs to be paid and need money for advertising.