Government change 1536-1553

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What was the Privy Council?
A permanent body of advisors that became increasingly civil servants under the Tudors.
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What was Parliament?
An intermittent body consulted only when required by the monarch. Made of the Houses of Commons (MPs) and Lords (Peers).
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What was the Court?
The moving body of advisors that travelled with the monarch on progresses around the country.
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Who was in the Royal Household?
The monarch's personal servants. Notably the Groom of the Stool.
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Who theorised the idea of 'Tudor revolution in government'?
Geoffrey Elton.
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What were Cromwell's overall achievements?
Reformed the Privy Council. Enforced Royal Writ countrywide. Abolished special privileges in certain areas (Durham). Reformed Crown finances. Enforced law and order.
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What were Cromwell's titles?
Vice Regent in Spirituals, MP and Earl of Essex.
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When did Cromwell fall?
October 1540.
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What changes were made to the Privy Council?
Membership decreased to19-20 members. The meetings were recorded in a minute book by a clerk/secretary.
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What were the jobs of the Privy Council?
Recruiting armies. Investigating crimes in the Star Chamber. Enforcing the Reformation.
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After Cromwell's death, what did the Council become?
A 'minister' (the third minister after Wolsey and Cromwell).
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What power did the Council have?
The power to issue orders and proclamations in the King's name.
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What is the phrase for how the Council acted?
'Collective responsibility'.
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What was the Council called during Edward's succession?
'The Regency Council'.
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Who was chosen as Lord Protector of the Council?
Somerset.
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How did Somerset use Edward and the Council?
He excluded Edward and rarely used the council, favouring his own household for advice.
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How did Northumberland overthrow Somerset?
He used the divisions Somerset created in the Council to remove Somerset from power.
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What did Northumberland call himself?
Lord President of the Council.
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What did the role of Lord President of the Council give Northumberland?
The power to call meetings, fix agendas and hire and fire members of the Council.
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How did Northumberland change the Privy Council?
He created smaller committees within it to deal with different issues.
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Which two Privy Council members were important during Northumberland's regency?
William Cecil (Secretary of State) and William Paget.
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What did the Council decide after Edward began to regularly attend meetings?
To end his minority on his 16th birthday rather than his 18th.
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How was the Council treated during the Succession crisis?
Northumberland bullied them into agreeing to it. Lord Montague was threatened with physical violence.
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Which House of Parliament held more power in both reigns?
The House of Lords.
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How many laws started in the Lords in the reign of Henry and Edward?
59% in Henry's reign. 64% in Edward's.
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What did the Reformation to for Parliament?
It gave them more powers and extended its role over areas such as religion. (Religious changes could only be passed through Statute Law not by Proclamation).
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What did Henry VIII use Parliament for?
To close the monasteries. To change religious doctrine (Act of Six Articles). To attainder Cromwell and Norfolk.
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How did Henry protect Parliament?
They had freedom from arrest.
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What was Parliament used for in Edward's reign?
To repeal religious laws. To repeal the heresy laws.
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What Acts enforced Edward's new Prayer Books?
The Acts of Uniformity (1549 and 1552).
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When did Parliament put up resistance in Edward's reign?
Refused to pass 3 Enclosure Bills in 1547. The Commons refused to pass a bill in 1552 accusing Bishop Tunstall of treason.
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What was the purpose of the Court of Augmentations and when was it set up?
It was established to handle the monastic land which belonged to the Crown. It was passed in 1536.
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What was the purpose of the Court of Wards and when was it set up?
It was established to look after land inherited by minors. It was established in 1536.
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What was the purpose of the Court of First Fruits and Tenths and when was it set up?
It was established to deal with money acquired from clergymen. It was established in 1540, after Cromwell's fall.
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What was the purpose of the Court of General Surveyors and when was it set up?
It was established to handle the older lands in the Crown's possession. It was established in 1542.
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What did the strain on finance caused by Henry's wars lead to?
Debasement of coinage and selling of Crown lands.
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What did debasement do for the country?
It net the Crown around £1.3m, but led to inflation.
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What did Somerset do for Crown finance?
Nothing positive. Continued debasing coinage to pay for French and Scottish wars.
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What did Northumberland do for Crown finance?
Couldn't end debasement but ordered a lowering of prices. Appointed Paulet as Lord Treasurer and ordered reports into the state of royal finances. Reduced military and royal household expenses.
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What was the Privy Coffer?
An emergency royal fund.
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What was the debt of the Crown in 1550 and then in 1553?
£300,000 in 1550. £180,000 in 1553.
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Did Northumberland sell Crown and Chantry land?
Yes.
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How much money did Northumberland manage to claim back for the Government?
£16,000.
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What Duchy was re-organised with a central staff and receivers in local areas?
The Duchy of Lancaster.
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When did Northumberland set up a commission to investigate revenue courts?
1552.
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When did Durham lose its special privileges and become incorporated into the kingdom?
1536.
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Why was the Council of the West established?
To manage the problems in Devon and Cornwall.
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What happened to the role of the Council of the North?
It was extended.
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How was local control changed in Calais?
The government was re-organised and it was given 2 parliamentary burgesses.
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How was local control changed in Ireland?
A permanent military garrison was set up in the Pale. An Englishman was made Lord Deputy.
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How was local control changed in Wales?
It became an integral part of the kingdom, with the same legal jurisdiction and system of MPs. English common law was extended to Wales. The distinction between Wales and the Marches was removed.
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When was the Act of Six Articles passed?
1539.
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When were the Countess of Salisbury, Cromwell and Norfolk attainted?
1539, 1540, 1547.
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What Acts were passed during Edward VI's first Parliament 1547-52?
Treasons Act (repealed treason laws, heresy laws and Act of Six Articles). Articles and benefit of clergy. Vagrancy Act. Act for the dissolution of the Chantries. First Act of Uniformity. Second Act of Uniformity.
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What happened during Edward VI's second Parliament 1553?
The revenue courts were amalgamated. The 42 Articles (which were not passed).
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Card 2

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What was Parliament?

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An intermittent body consulted only when required by the monarch. Made of the Houses of Commons (MPs) and Lords (Peers).

Card 3

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What was the Court?

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Card 4

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Who was in the Royal Household?

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Card 5

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Who theorised the idea of 'Tudor revolution in government'?

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