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Definition of Governance
The process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented
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What does territorial politics examine?
Structure, election behaviour, parties, interest groups --> The distribution of power
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Examples of territorial communities
Nation, religion, ethnicity, language
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Why should regional territorial communities be accommodated?
To avoid the risk of violence
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Forms of accommodation
Federalism, devolution, consociationalism, confederalism
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How do they differ?
In constitutional framework: distribution of responsibilities, way of appointing personell
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Advantages of centralisation
National unity, uniformity (enables mobility), equality, prosperity
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Advantages of decentralisation
Participation (more informer citizens), responsiveness, legitimacy, liberty
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Best mix to avoid inefficiency?
Only education, health, social welfare and planning handled centrally
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Definition of Federalism
A territorial distribution of power based on the sharing of sovereignty between central (usually national) bodies and peripheral ones
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Purpose of Federalism
1) Reconcile desire for commonality and unity with desire for autonomy and diversity. 2) Neither level of government can encroach on the powers of the other. 3) Neither level of government is legally or politically subordinate to the other
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Why has Federalism evolved?
1) Joining of political communities wishing to preserve separate identities. 2) External threat or desire to be more effective in international affairs. 3) Geographical size - cultural diversity created more pressure for decentralisation
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Common features of Federalism
1) Two relatively autonomous levels of government. 2) Written constitution. 3) Constitutional arbiter. 4) Linking institutions
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Advantages of Federalism
1) Territorial communities are given political power. 2) Individual liberty protected by the network of checks and balances. 3) A mechanism through which fractured societies have maintained unity
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Disadvantages of Federalism
1) Tendency towards centralisation (growth of economic and social intervention. 2) Balancing and checks may create frustration and paralysis. 3) Breeding governmental divisions may strengthen centrifugal pressures and lead to disintegration
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Example of centrifugal pressures
An entirely independent Quebec rejected narrowly in referendum 1995
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Example: Canada
1867 British North American Act. 1) Provinces have considerable power (spends taxes). 2) Asymmetrical federalism (Quebec disproportionally represented
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Example: Germany
1949 Basic Law. 1) Federal level relatively strong - provinces interprets laws. 2) Symmetrical federalism
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Definition of Devolution
The transfer of power from central government to subordinate regional bodies, without leading to shared sovereignty
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Purpose of Devolution
Aims to conciliate growing regional/nationalistic pressures
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Removing devolved bodies
Despite the lack of entrenched powers, devolved bodies are difficult to weaken once they have a political identity and possess democratic legitimacy
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Devolved body that was removed
Northern Ireland's Stormont Parliament replaced by direct rule from Westminster Parliament in 1972
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Advantages of Devolution
1) Helps to consolidate the multinational UK state. 2) Granting a measure of 'home rule' will eliminate separatist nationalism
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Disadvantages of Devolution
1) Risk of final breakup of the UK. 2) Asymmetrical models means that Northern Ireland and Wales will aspire to the powers of the Scottish parliament, whereas Scotland has incentives to maintain its superior position
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Example: UK
Traditionally one of the most centralised unitary states. 1) Revival of Scottish and Welsh nationalism in 1960s led to devolution in 1999. 2) Northern Ireland devolved in 1998.
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Example: Scotland
Largest and most powerful of the devolved bodies. 1) Tax-varying policies (rise or lower income tax by 3p to the pound). 2) Primary legislative authority in domestic policy areas (health care, eduction, housing and personal social services)
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Rise of ethnic politics
Growing importance of ethnic consciousness in the West after WW2, despite believes that liberal-democratic values would bring the opposite
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Definition of Multilevel governance
A complex policy process involving subnational, national and supranational levels and governmental and non-governmental actors
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Multilevel governance is a combination of:
Globalisation, 'rolling back' and restructuring, growth of substate governments
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Multilevel governance is said to ... the state
Hollow out
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Trend of moving focus in Politics
There is an increasing trend to blur the old distinctions between state and society and instead move focus from government to governance
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Debate concerning organisation of multilevel governance
Consolidationists vs Fragmentationists
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Advantage of multilevel governance decisions
Multilevel governance allows decision makers to adjust the scale of governance to reflect heterogeneity (Preference of citizens and ecological conditions)
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Centralised governments criticised for policy decision:
Criticised for varying scale efficiencies from policy to policy. Economies of scale are more likely in production of capital-intensive public goods (eg. military defence) than of labour-intensive services (eg. education)
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Solution to criticism
Centralised military defence and decentralised education - Hooghe and Marks, 2003
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Should multilevel governance be structured around particular communities or particular policy problems
Hooghe and Mark's two types. Type 1: Analysis of government rather than policy, inflexible. Type 2: Specific tasks deal with locally, flexible - responds to changing citizen preferences
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Frey and Eichenberger (1999) on Type 2
"Established when needed and discontinued when not needed
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Hooghe and Mark on the two types
"Type 1 (territory or religious/ethnic group) jurisdiction choose citizens, while citizens choose Type 2 (common need for collective decision-making to solve a particular policy problem) jurisdictions"
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Coordination dilemma of multilevel governance
Weighing the benefit of flexibility against the risk of free riding with a rising number of actors
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Why is policy divergence important for multilevel governance?
"Policy divergence taken as a measure of the degree to which devolution has made a difference" - Keating et al, 2005. Creates a feeling of regional distinctiveness
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Why is policy ownership more important than policy divergence?
Canadian policies did not differ much after 1964 Established Programmes Act, but was more symbolic. It was not until later that the model evolved to be better at social welfare than other provinces
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What leads to policy divergence in Scotland?
1) Different ideological pressures (Labour vs Conservative in Westminster and opposition by nationalist in Scotland). 2) Professional elites in health and education have had greater influence on policy in Scotland - Greer (2005), Reynolds (2002)
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Surveys suggest that the Scottish Parliament...
Improves public services and is a mean of expressing a distinctive identity and wishes of the Scottish people
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What are the similarities of Scottish and UK policies reported by McEwen in 2005?
Youth crime, Private financing of school and hospital buildings
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Why are there policy similarities?
1) Limitations of Scottish government (can't borrow) means that it may have to let private sector finance buildings. 2) Interest groups often operate on a UK-wide basis. 3) Administrative bodies may copy successful policies - Rees, 2002
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Distinctiveness is limited when same party rule in Scotland and in Westminster because:
No 'us-them' as attacking one's own party could benefit rivals
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Advantages of social policy at central level
1) Social policy can mediate between regional conflicts. 2) Reinforce national integration. 3) Strengthen state authority when faced with challenges from minorities
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Advantages of policy at substate level
1) Strengthen regional cultures. 2) Enhance importance of regional government in every day life of citizens
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Electoral Impact
1) Substate elections tend to boost support for SNRPs. 2) Potential for second order effect
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Challenges for statewide parties
1) Devolved levels require different strategies --> risk for internal party tension
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Challenges for SNRPs
Credibility challenge - come across as serious while standing for primary goals
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Card 2


What does territorial politics examine?


Structure, election behaviour, parties, interest groups --> The distribution of power

Card 3


Examples of territorial communities


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Card 4


Why should regional territorial communities be accommodated?


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Card 5


Forms of accommodation


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