Goldstein

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What did Goldstein do before the study?
She looked at 21 longitudinal studies following patients from 1st admission and in general it found that women have a less severe experience compared to men.
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What were the aims?
To see if there was gender differences with regard to re hospitalisation of people with schizophrenia and to the length of their hospital stays. To consider social factors before diagnosis. To look at DSM II and DSM III.
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How long were the patients followed for?
10 years
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What was some of the criteria for the sample?
Had a hospital stay of less than 6 months, expected to return to their families, had no other mental isses and were aged between 18 to 45.
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What did the hospital records give?
A detailed history for the re diagnosis and then a single blind technique was used.
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How many of the original 199 patients met the DSM III criteria for schizophrenia or a form of it?
169
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How many first time admissions were identified?
52 (but this was too small)
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What then was added to the sample to make it bigger?
People with a previous hospitalisation were added - 38
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What was the final sample size?
90 - 58 men and 32 women aged 18-45
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What did Goldstein gather data about?
Symptoms, premorbid functioning and the course of the illness using interviews and questionnaires.
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What are some examples of symptoms and who were they rated by?
They were rated by trained interviewers and examples include: hallucinations, paranoia, isolation, withdrawel and anxiety.
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How was pre morbid functioning measured?
Measured by questionnaires dealing with isolation, peer relationships and interests from the age of 6-13 and 14-20.
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How was the course of the illness measured?
From the number of re hospitalisations and length of stay in hospital. Data obtained over a 10 year period with results considered at a 5 yrs and 10 yrs.
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Where was the data about the re hospitalisations and lengths of stay taken from?
The New York State Department of Mental Health (secondary)
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What was the number of re hospitalisations at the 10 yr stage for males?
2.24
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What was the number of re hospitalisations at the 10 yr stage for females?
1.12 (males is double)
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What was the length of hospital stay for males at the 10 yr stage for males?
417.83
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What was the length of hospital stay for males at the 10 yr stage for females?
206.81 (again, males is almost double)
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What % of gender effect was due to pre morbid functioning for the re hospitalisations and the length of stay?
13% 4.3%
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What did Goldstein conclude?
Females experience fewer re hospitalisations and shorter lengths of stay over a 5 and 10 year period than males. Gender differences started early in the disorder. Males have a poorer outcome than females.
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What are the strengths of the study?
Overall sample size of 90 is good and there was strong controls for the criteria. Supporting evidence - study in Germany that used a larger sample found the same results. Inter rater reliability - 2 experts tested the re diagnosis. Quantitative data.
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What are the weaknesses of the study?
Took place in NY and is therefore ethnocentric. The age of the sample is criticed (18-45) as women usually have their first episode after 45 - sample is biased. Potential of interview bias.
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Card 2

Front

What were the aims?

Back

To see if there was gender differences with regard to re hospitalisation of people with schizophrenia and to the length of their hospital stays. To consider social factors before diagnosis. To look at DSM II and DSM III.

Card 3

Front

How long were the patients followed for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was some of the criteria for the sample?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did the hospital records give?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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