Going Global Keywords

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Birth Rate
the number of births per 1,000 people per year in a region
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Branch Plant
a factory built in a country by a TNC that has its headquarters elsewhere
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Cluster
geographically concentrated group of connected industries and institutions e.g. Central London is home to clusters of TV production companies
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Core
the most developed and highly populated region of a country
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Cumulative causation
a model that explain why wealth becomes concentrated in certain places
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Death rate
the number of deaths per 1,000 people per year in a region
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Deindustrialisation
the decline of regionally important manufacturing industries
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Dependency
when a nation relies for income on outside sources and has only weak control over its own economic future
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Development Gap
the difference in levels of economic and social well-being between the richest and poorest people on the planet
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Displaced Persons
people who are forced to move, by war, famine, political persecution or natural disaster
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Ecological Footprint
a measurement of the area of land or water required to provide a person/society with the energy, resources and good they consume and the waste they produce
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Economic migrant
a migrant whose primary motivation is to seek employment
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Elite
a group of people who are economically and socially powerful e.g. Bill Gates
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Export processing zone
a small industrial areas, where favourable conditions are created to attract foreign TNCs
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Externalities
the range of benefits and costs generated by economic activity that are not fully accounted for e.g. pollution
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Food Miles
the distance food travels from a farm to the consumer
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Foreign Direct Investment
A financial injection made by a TNC into a nation’s economy e.g. building new facilities
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Global Hub
a settlement providing a focal point for activities that have a global influence
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Global Shift
the global-scale relocation of different types of industrial activity e.g. manufacturing
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Greying population
a population structure in which the proportion of people aged over 65 is high and rising
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
a measure of the financial value of the goods and services produced with a territory
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Human Development Index
a United Nations measure of economic and social development that takes into account income per capita, life expectancy and adult literacy
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Illegal Migrants
people who avoid border and immigration controls and enter a new country illegally
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Internal Migration
the movement of people between different regions within the same nation
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Intervening Obstacle
barrier to a migrant such as a political boarder or physical feature e.g. mountains
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Intervening Opportunity
an alternative migration destination that exists between the migrant’s place of origin and intended destination
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Minimum Wage
an hourly wage set by a nation’s government that all companies must pay to their employees
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Multiplier Effect
the positive spin-offs that follow an initial investment in a region
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Natural Increase
the difference between the birth rate and the death rate, usually converted into a percentage
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Net Migration
the balance between immigration and emigration
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Parent company
the original business that a global TNC has developed around e.g. Walt Disney Company
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Petrodollars
money derived from selling oil
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Absolute Poverty
income levels below what is needed to maintain an adequate diet
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Relative poverty
income levels that are below average for a region
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Purchasing Power Parity
a measure of average wealth of people in a country
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Quaternary Sector
country’s employment structure that includes research, IT and financial management
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Rural-Urban Migration
a movement of population from rural to urban areas
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Shrinking World
distant places start to feel closer and take less time to reach due to technology
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Social Mobility
the movement of individuals between different levels of a social hierarchy
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Spatial Division of Labour
common practice among large companies of moving low-skilled work abroad to place where labour costs are low
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Structural Adjustment Programmes
strict conditions imposed countries receiving loans from the IMF and World Bank.
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Switched-on places
nations, regions or cities that are strongly connected to other places through the production and consumption of goods and services
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Switched-off places
nations, regions or cities that are poorly connected
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Technopole
a cluster of technologically innovative businesses and research institutes e.g. Silicon Valley
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Tertiary Sector
also known as the service sector, consisting of business that produce no physical product but either sell a product or offer a service such as tourism/education
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Transnational Corporation (TNC)
a company that has operations in more than one country
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Voluntary Migrants
people who move for quality of life reasons
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World City
a city with major economic and political power e.g. New York
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Card 2

Front

a factory built in a country by a TNC that has its headquarters elsewhere

Back

Branch Plant

Card 3

Front

geographically concentrated group of connected industries and institutions e.g. Central London is home to clusters of TV production companies

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the most developed and highly populated region of a country

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a model that explain why wealth becomes concentrated in certain places

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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