evil

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first introduction of the argument
Identified by Epicurus, Identified by Epicurus
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Freewill from I
: Free will must be present so humans can decide how to respond to evil in any situation
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Freewill from I
Humans have been granted free-will and evil has entered due to Adam and Eve
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The Free Will Defence
The use of Free Will to justify God tolerating evil , Hick
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Automata
humans like robots; lack of freedom; programmed
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A key books
The City of God and The Confession
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A background
• Turned against the Christian faith (parental influences) as a child • Instead of going to philosophy school, became a committed monk • Inspired by Ambrose of Milan
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A assumptions and bible verses
• Based off of Genesis 3 (fall of humankind) and Romans 5:12-20 (St Paul -> cross wipes Adam and Eve’s sin), and 2 assumptions 1) evil is not from God 2) came from within the world
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Evil created by God? Augustine
God did not create evil as his creation was perfect. God cannot be blamed for creating evil as evil is not a substance but a privation of good; it makes no sense to say God created a deprivation
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natural evil - Augustine
caused by fallen angels who use their free-will to wreck havoc, human action destroyed the natural order 'cursed the grounds around him’
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Augustine - the fall
'Seminally’ present in Adam so we have sinned, human consequence
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Romans 5 - A
The crucification of Jesus seen as the solution to evil —> God makes repentance and salvation possible it
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Augustine - Soul-deciding
those who do not turn back to God are condemned to hell
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jesus' teachings... A
We are judged on our response to evil
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aesthetic principle A
contrast between good and bad highlights beauty of goodness
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Why allow evil? A
Allowing evil is a price worth paying for freewill
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I background
Father of the early Christian Church
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Why doesn't god stop evil? I
Lack maturity and God tolerates evil to help us mature
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image vs likeliness I
Makes a distinction between the image of God and the likeness of God: In Genesis Adam had the form of God but not his content —> needed to develop to grow into God’s likeness
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Potter and clay analogy I
humans born as clay and sculpted to perfection; God is the potter who uses evil as a process to perfection
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Bible quote about Adam I
‘he who led man captive, was justly captured in turn of God’, like children who need boundaries'
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like and resemble I
“And now we will make human beings; they will be like us and resemble us” Genesis 1:26, like us – intelligence, morality, personality. ‘resemble us’ soul grows until they resemble the nature of God
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I and A agree on
Suffering is a price worth paying for freewill
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john keats - H
'vale of soul-making'
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Hick's afterlife
Ultimate perfection is realised after death
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epistemic distance Hick's
not born knowing of his existence, not something easy to gain knowledge of; a gap of knowledge between God and humans = not overwhelmed by his presence and ultimate knowledge and are genuinely free to act and learn
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soul-making I
involves a battle to gain religious faith
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infant mortality
there must be an after-life so that these should can receive a heavenly reward
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‘the all important aspect’ of the theodicy -Hick
• Because there is so much evil in the world and not all suffering seems fair, we must admit that we cannot fully understand God’s reason or plan
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hick different to I
• Hick rejects the mythology of the Genesis account
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Scholars agreeing with A
• Alvin Plantinga: the ultimate origin of evil can be traced to the misuse of free-will by Satan, brian davies: is a privation,
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Scholars against A
• F D E Schleiermacher: evil must be attributed to God, “Pointless evil is evidence that a theistic God does not exist at all” - William Rowe, “We cannot understand the mind of an ant, how can we possibly understand the mind of God?” -Gregory of Nyss
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Scholars agreeing with I
• • Vardy: supports the idea of the development of freely given love being preferable to coerced love in his story of the peasant girl+Ki, Richard Swinburne in ‘The Existence of God’ argues that the world needs to have evil in it for man to develop,
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Alvin Plantinga
Alvin Plantinga: the ultimate origin of evil can be traced to the misuse of free-will by Satan
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brian davies
brian davies: is a privation,
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richard swinburne
‘The Existence of God’ argues that the world needs to have evil in it for man to develop,
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Vardy
• Vardy: supports the idea of the development of freely given love being preferable to coerced love in his story of the peasant girl and the King
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Scholars against I
desmond tutu, the brother karamazov
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desmond tutu
Desmond Tutu – ‘Why does suffering seem to single out us blacks to be the victims of racism gone mad?’
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the brother karamazov
‘the Brother Karamazov’, nothing can justify the suffering of innocent children. God should be punished for his acts.
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my point one
1) Augustine, evil comes from free will – evidence around us, free will defence (Vardy) VS J.L Mackie – God should create people that can always choose good = not omnipotent VS Hick argued back this is robots, choice limited
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my point 2
2) Swinburne – learn ‘less knowledge’ ‘less opportunity’ VS Protest Atheism ‘The Brothers Karamazov’ nothing can justify the suffering of young children
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my point 3
3) Augustine seminally present in Adam VS Desmond Tutu ‘why does suffering seem to single out us blacks to be the victims of racism gone mad?’
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my point 4
4) Irenaeus – close the epistemic gap VS how much suffering is needed to teach a lesson, can’t we learn through other ways? Hume – ‘learn through pleasure’
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my point 5
5) Augustine believed in the Bible literally
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my point 6
6) Perfect world then spoilt VS geologists show the world developed over 4 billion years and natural selection
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Card 2

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Freewill from I

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: Free will must be present so humans can decide how to respond to evil in any situation

Card 3

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Freewill from I

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Card 4

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The Free Will Defence

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Card 5

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Automata

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