Respiration

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Glycolysis - stages, net gain and location.
Glucose -> phosphorylated 6C sugar -> triose phosphate -> pyruvate. Occurs with/without O2 in the cytosol. Net gain of 2ATP. Products = pyruvate, NADH and ATP.
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The Link Reaction - stages, net gain and location.
Stages = pyruvate -> 2C acetate and CO2 -> Acetyl co-enzyme A. Occurs in the mitochondria. Net gain of 2 NADH, 2 CO2 and 2 acetyl co-enzyme A. Oxidative decarboxylation - loss of CO2 and oxidation.
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The Krebs Cycle - net gain and location.
Net gain per turn = 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and 1ATP. Net gain per glucose molecule = 6 NADH, 2 FADH2 and 2 ATP. Occurs in the matrix.
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Electron Transport Chain - net gain and location.
Net gain of 5 ATP (3 from each electron pair from NADH, 2 from each electron pair from FADH2). Occurs in the phosphate membrane in the mitchondria/cristae.
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Why does electron transfer provide energy for the active transport of H atoms from the matrix to the inter-membrane space?
Gives high concentration in membranes and low concentraion in the matrix, H diffuses into the matrix through an enzyme spanning the membrane which provides the energy for ADP + Pi to form ATP. The enzyme is ATPase.
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Anaerobic - stages, types, where and net gain.
Stages - glycolysis followed by either lactate or alcoholic fermentation. Net gain of 2ATP from the glycolysis stage. Occurs in the cytosol.
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Alcoholic fermentation
Occurs in yeast. Stages = pyruvate -> decarboxylated pyruvate (and ethanol) -> ethanol. H from NADH reduces decarboxylated pyruvate to ethanol. Allows NAD to be regenerated so more glycolysis can occur.
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Lactate fermentation
Occurs in animals. Stages = Pyruvate -> lactic acid. H from NADH reduces pyruvate to lactic acid. Allows NAD to be regenerated so more glycolysis can occur. Catalysed by lactate dehydrogenase.
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Card 2

Front

Stages = pyruvate -> 2C acetate and CO2 -> Acetyl co-enzyme A. Occurs in the mitochondria. Net gain of 2 NADH, 2 CO2 and 2 acetyl co-enzyme A. Oxidative decarboxylation - loss of CO2 and oxidation.

Back

The Link Reaction - stages, net gain and location.

Card 3

Front

Net gain per turn = 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and 1ATP. Net gain per glucose molecule = 6 NADH, 2 FADH2 and 2 ATP. Occurs in the matrix.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Net gain of 5 ATP (3 from each electron pair from NADH, 2 from each electron pair from FADH2). Occurs in the phosphate membrane in the mitchondria/cristae.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Gives high concentration in membranes and low concentraion in the matrix, H diffuses into the matrix through an enzyme spanning the membrane which provides the energy for ADP + Pi to form ATP. The enzyme is ATPase.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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