Glossry

HideShow resource information
Absorber
A substance that takes in radiation.
1 of 109
Adaptation
Special feature that makes an organism particularly well suited to the environment where it lives.
2 of 109
Adult cell cloning
Process in which the nucleus of an adult cell of one animal is fused with an empty egg from another animal. The embryo which results is placed inside the uterus of a third animal to develop.
3 of 109
Agar
The nutrient jelly on which many microorganisms are cultured.
4 of 109
Alkane
Saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2, for example methane, ethane and propane.
5 of 109
Alkene
Unsaturated hydrocarbon which contains a carbon-carbon double bond. The general formula is CnH2n, for example ethene C2H4
6 of 109
Alloy
A mixture of metals (and sometimes non-metals). For example, brass is a mixture of copper and zinc.
7 of 109
Aluminium
A low density, corrosion-resistant metal used in many alloys, including those used in the aircraft industry.
8 of 109
Amplitude
The height of a wave crest or a wave trough of a transverse wave from the rest position.
9 of 109
Angle of incidence
Angle between the incident ray and the normal.
10 of 109
Angle of reflection
Angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
11 of 109
Antibiotic
Drug that destroys bacteria inside the body without damaging human cells.
12 of 109
Asexual reproduction
Reproduction that involves only one individual with no fusing of gametes to produce the offspring. The offspring are identical to the parent.
13 of 109
Atmosphere
The relatively thin layer of gases that surround planet Earth.
14 of 109
Atom
The smallest part of an element that can still be recognised as that element.
15 of 109
Atomic number
The number of protons (which equals the number of electrons) in an atom. It is sometimes called the proton number.
16 of 109
Auxin
A plant hormone that controls the responses of plants to light (phototropism) and to gravity (gravitropism).
17 of 109
Bacteria
Single-celled microorganisms that can reproduce very rapidly. Many bacteria are useful, for example, gut bacteria and decomposing bacteria, but some cause disease.
18 of 109
Band
Part of the radio and microwave spectrum used for communications.
19 of 109
Base load
Constant amount of electricity generated by power stations.
20 of 109
Big Bang theory
The theory that the universe was created in a massive explosion (the Big Bang) and that the universe has been expanding ever since.
21 of 109
Biodegradable
Materials that can be broken down by microorganisms.
22 of 109
Biodiesel
Fuel for cars made from plant oils.
23 of 109
Biofuel
Fuel made from animal or plant products.
24 of 109
Bioleaching
Process of extraction of metals from ores using microorganisms.
25 of 109
Biomass
Biological material from living or recently living organisms.
26 of 109
Blast furnace
The huge reaction vessels used in industry to extract iron from its ore.
27 of 109
Blue-shift
Decrease in the wavelength of electromagnetic waves emitted by a star or galaxy due to its motion towards us. The faster the speed of the star or galaxy, the greater the blue-shift is.
28 of 109
Boundary
The line along which two substances meet.
29 of 109
Calcium carbonate
The main compound found in limestone. It is a white solid whose formula is CaCO3.
30 of 109
Calcium hydroxide
A white solid made by reacting calcium oxide with water. It is used as a cheap alkali in industry.
31 of 109
Calcium oxide
A white solid made by heating limestone strongly, for example, in a lime kiln.
32 of 109
Carbon cycle
The cycling of carbon through the living and non-living world.
33 of 109
Carbon monoxide
A toxic gas whose formula is CO.
34 of 109
Carnivore
An animal that eats other animals.
35 of 109
Cast iron
The impure iron taken directly from a blast furnace.
36 of 109
Cement
A building material made by heating limestone and clay.
37 of 109
Central nervous system (CNS)
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord where information is processed.
38 of 109
Charles Darwin
The Victorian scientist who developed the theory of evolution by a process of natural selection.
39 of 109
Chemical energy
Energy of an object due to chemical reactions in it.
40 of 109
Chromosome
Thread-like structure carrying the genetic information found in the nucleus of a cell.
41 of 109
Clone
Offspring produced by asexual reproduction that is identical to the parent organism.
42 of 109
Combustion
The process of burning.
43 of 109
Competition
The process by which living organisms compete with each other for limited resources such as food, light or reproductive partners.
44 of 109
Compost heap
A site where garden rubbish and kitchen waste are decomposed by microorganisms.
45 of 109
Compound
A substance made when two or more elements are chemically bonded together. For example, water (H2O) is a compound made from hydrogen and oxygen.
46 of 109
Compression
Squeezed together.
47 of 109
Concrete
A building material made by mixing cement, sand and aggregate (crushed rock) with water.
48 of 109
Condensation
Turning from water vapour into liquid.
49 of 109
Conduction
Transfer of energy from particle to particle in matter.
50 of 109
Conductor
Material/object that conducts.
51 of 109
Conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
52 of 109
Contraceptive pill
A pill containing female sex hormones which is used to prevent conception.
53 of 109
Convection
Transfer of energy by the bulk movement of a heated fluid.
54 of 109
Convection current
The circular motion of matter caused by heating in fluids.
55 of 109
Copper-rich ore
Rock that contains a high proportion of a copper compound.
56 of 109
Core
The centre of the Earth.
57 of 109
Cosmic microwave background radiation
Electromagnetic radiation that has been travelling through space ever since it was created shortly after the Big Bang.
58 of 109
Cost effectiveness
How much something gives value for money when purchase, running and other costs are taken into account.
59 of 109
Covalent bond
The attraction between two atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons.
60 of 109
Cracking
The reaction used in the oil industry to break down large hydrocarbons into smaller, more useful ones. This occurs when the hydrocarbon vapour is either passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam and heated to a high temperature.
61 of 109
Crust
The outer solid layer of the Earth.
62 of 109
Culture medium
A substance containing the nutrients needed for microorganisms to grow.
63 of 109
Decomposer
Microorganism that breaks down waste products and dead bodies.
64 of 109
Denature
Change the shape of an enzyme so that it can no longer speed up a reaction.
65 of 109
Depression
A mental illness that involves feelings of great sadness that interfere with everyday life.
66 of 109
Detritus feeder
See definition for Decomposer.
67 of 109
Diffraction
The spreading of waves when they pass through a gap or around the edges of an obstacle that has a similar size as the wavelength of the waves.
68 of 109
Displace
When one element takes the place of another in a compound. For example, iron + copper sulphate --> iron sulphate + copper.
69 of 109
Distillation
Separation of a liquid from a mixture by evaporation followed by condensation.
70 of 109
Doppler effect
The change of wavelength (and frequency) of the waves from a moving source due to the motion of the source towards or away from the observer.
71 of 109
Double bond
A covalent bond made by the sharing of two pairs of electrons.
72 of 109
Double-blind trial
A drug trial in which neither the patient nor the doctor knows if the patient is receiving the new drug or a placebo.
73 of 109
Drug
A chemical which causes changed in the body. Medical drugs cure diseases or relieve symptoms. Recreational drugs alter the state of your mind and/or body.
74 of 109
Echo
Reflection of sound that can be heard.
75 of 109
Effector organ
Muscle and gland that responds to impulses from the nervous system.
76 of 109
Efficiency
Useful energy transferred by a device ÷ total energy supplied to the device.
77 of 109
Elastic potential energy
Energy stored in an elastic object when work is done to change its shape.
78 of 109
Electrical appliance
Machine powered by electricity.
79 of 109
Electrical energy
Energy transferred by the movement of electrical charge.
80 of 109
Electromagnetic spectrum
A set of radiations that have different wavelengths and frequencies but all travel at the same speed in a vacuum.
81 of 109
Electromagnetic wave
Electric and magnetic disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another.
82 of 109
The spectrum of electromagnetic waves in order of increasing wavelength
Gamma and X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves.
83 of 109
Electron
A tiny particle with a negative charge. Electrons orbit the nucleus in atoms or ions.
84 of 109
Electronic structure
A set of numbers to show the arrangement of electrons in their shells (or energy levels), for example, the electronic structure of a potassium atom is 2,8,8,1.
85 of 109
Element
A substance made up of only one type of atom. An element cannot be broken down chemically into any simpler substance.
86 of 109
Emit
Give out radiation.
87 of 109
Emitter
A substance that gives out radiation.
88 of 109
Emulsifier
A substance which helps keep immiscible liquids (for example, oil and water) mixed so that they do not separate out into layers.
89 of 109
Emulsion
A mixture of liquids that do not dissolve into each other.
90 of 109
Energy level
See definition for Shell.
91 of 109
Energy transfer
Movement of energy from one place to another or one form to another.
92 of 109
Enzyme
Protein molecule that acts as a biological catalyst.
93 of 109
Epidemic
When more cases of an infectious disease are recorded than would normally be expected.
94 of 109
Ethene
An alkene with the formula C2H4.
95 of 109
Evaporation
Turning from liquid into vapour.
96 of 109
Evolution
The process of slow change in living organisms over long periods of time as those best adapted to survive breed successfully.
97 of 109
Evolutionary relationship
Model of the relationships between organisms, often based on DNA evidence, which suggest how long ago the evolved away from each other and how closely related they are in evolutionary terms.
98 of 109
Evolutionary tree
Model of the evolutionary relationships between different organisms based on their appearance, and increasingly, on DNA evidence.
99 of 109
Extremophile
Organism which lives in environments that are very extreme, for example, very high or very low temperatures, high salt levels or high pressures.
100 of 109
Fermentation
The reaction in which the enzymes in yeast turn glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
101 of 109
Flammable
Easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly.
102 of 109
Fluid
A liquid or gas.
103 of 109
Fossil fuel
Fuel obtained from long-dead biological material.
104 of 109
Fraction
Hydrocarbons with similar boiling points separated from crude oil.
105 of 109
Fractional distillation
A way to separate liquids from a mixture of liquids by burning off the substances at different temperatures, then condensing and collecting the liquids.
106 of 109
Free electron
Electron that moves about freely inside a metal and is not held inside an atom.
107 of 109
Frequency
The number of wave crests passing a fixed point every second.
108 of 109
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
A female hormone that stimulates the eggs to mature in the ovaries, and the ovaries to produce hormones, including oestrogen.
109 of 109

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Special feature that makes an organism particularly well suited to the environment where it lives.

Back

Adaptation

Card 3

Front

Process in which the nucleus of an adult cell of one animal is fused with an empty egg from another animal. The embryo which results is placed inside the uterus of a third animal to develop.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The nutrient jelly on which many microorganisms are cultured.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2, for example methane, ethane and propane.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Science resources:

See all Science resources »See all Glossary resources »