Glossary

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  • Created by: Spuddey
  • Created on: 23-12-13 15:39
Articular Cartilage
Thin layer of smooth cartilage, quite spongey... Covers ends of bones at a joint
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Yellow Elastic Cartilage
Soft and slightly elastic...Used to maintain shape and support... eg. in earlobe
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Fibrocartilage
Tough and slightly flexible... Acts as a shock absorber, protecting bones... e.g. Between vertebrae
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Axial Skeleton
Forms long axis of body ...Fixed position... Protects vital organs e.g. spine and ribcage
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Appendicular Skeleton
Bones of upper and lower limbs and girdles ('pockets') that join it to the axial skeleton
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Glenoid Fossa
The socket in a ball and socket joint
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Anterior
Towards front of the body
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Inferior
Towards feet or lower part of the body
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Lateral
Towards outside of the body
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Medial
Towards middle of the body
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Posterior
Towards back of the body
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Superior
Towards head of upper part of the body
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Synovial Joint
a freely moveable joint
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Origin
End of muscle that REMAINS FIXED during movement
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Insertion
Point of attachment to muscle that MOVES during muscular contraction
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Agonist
Muscle DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE for the movement at a joint
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Antagonist
Muscle that has OPPOSITE ACTION to agonist
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Agonist Muscle Action
As one muscle shortens to produce movement, another muscle lengthens to allow that movement to take place
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Muscle Fibre
Long cylindrical muscle cell ... held together in bundles to make up an individual skeletal muscle
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Aerobic Exercise
In presence of oxygen ... Sub-maximal intensity over prolonged period of time ... e.g. rowing
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Anaerobic Exercise
In absence of oxygen ... Maximal intensity for short period of time ... e.g. Sprinting
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Warm Up
Light aerobic exercise done before physical activity
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Cool Down
Low intensity aerobic exercise to start the recovery
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Osteoporosis
Weakening of bones caused by a reduction in bone density, making them prone to dracture
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Growth Plate
Area of growing tissue at the end of bones on children and teens ... when it is complete it closes and is replaced by solid bone (usually late adolescence)
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Osteoarthritis
Degenerative joint disease caused by loss of articular cartilage at ends of long bones in a joint ... Causes pain, swelling and reduced joint motion
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Bone Spurs
Small projections of bone that form around joints due to damage to joint surface (most commonly caused by osteoarthritis) ... Limit movement and cause pain
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Joint Stability
Resistance offered by various musculo-skeletal tissues that surround a joint
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Muscle Tone
Continual state of partial contraction of a muscle (WHILE AT REST) that helps to maintain good posture
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Pulmonary
Linked to the lungs
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Systemic
Linked to the body
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Systole
Lasts 0.3 seconds ... represents contraction phase
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Diastole
Lasts 0.5 seconds ... represents relaxation phase
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Cardiac Cycle
Represents the mechanical event of one heartbeat ... Lasts 0.8 seconds
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Myogenic
Generating it's own electrical impulse
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Stroke Volume
Blood ejected from heart ventricles every beat ... ml/beat
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Heart Rate
Number of times the heart ventricles beat in 1 minute ... bpm
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Cardiac Output (Q)
Volume of blood ejected by the heart ventricles in 1 minute ... l/minute
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Bradycardia
A resting heart rate below 60
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Cardiac Hypertrophy
Increase in size of heart muscle wall
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V02 max
Maximal Oxygen Capacity
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Average resting HR
70 - 72 bpm
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Average resting SV
60 - 80 ml/beat
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Average Resting Q
5 l/minute
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End-Diastolic Volume
Volume of blood in the ventricles after the heart has relaxed
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End - Systolic Volume
Volume of blood in ventricles after the heart has contracted
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Venous Return
Blood Returning to the heart (Starlings Law)
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Ventricular Contractility
Capacity of heart ventricles to contract
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Anticipatory Rise
Where you heart rate fluctuates due to an increase in adrenaline to stimulate the SAN node to prepare ourselves for exercise
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Medulla Oblongata
In brain ... Controls a lot of functions ... contains inspiratory and expiratory centres
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Receptor
Sense organs that pick up stimuli which are relayed to the brain (Medulla Oblongata)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Soft and slightly elastic...Used to maintain shape and support... eg. in earlobe

Back

Yellow Elastic Cartilage

Card 3

Front

Tough and slightly flexible... Acts as a shock absorber, protecting bones... e.g. Between vertebrae

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Forms long axis of body ...Fixed position... Protects vital organs e.g. spine and ribcage

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Bones of upper and lower limbs and girdles ('pockets') that join it to the axial skeleton

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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