Glossary

Observation
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses.
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Independent Variable
The variable that can be changed in the experiment
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Dependent Variable
The result of the change
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Inductive Reasoning
From a number of observation, a guard conclusion is drawn
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Deductive Reasoning
From a general premise, specific results are required
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Methodology
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
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Hypothesis
A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
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Scientific Theory
“A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on facts that have been confirmed through observation and experiment. Examples are: Evolution, Gravity, Anatomic theory of matter, Germ theory of dise
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Empiricism
The theory that the origin of all knowledge is sense experience. It emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, and argues that the only knowledge humans can have is a posteriori (i.e. bas
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Qualitative
relating to, measuring, or measured by the quality of something rather than its quantity.
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Quantitive
relating to, measuring, or measured by the quantity of something rather than its quality.
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Confirmation Bias
Observations in favour of the hypothesis. Repetition of observations by unbiased peers. Peer review process.
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Processing Bias
Digital enhancement. Provision of raw data for peer review.
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Observational Bias
Only looking where you will find positive results. Correct negative controls and statistics.
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Variable
any factor that can be controlled, changed, or measured.
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Multiple measurement modalities
- measuring outcomes in different ways, helps to eliminate bias, confirms findings, adds power to a study.
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White Coat Hypertension
a syndrome whereby a patient's feeling of anxiety in a medical environment results in an abnormally high reading when their blood pressure is measured.
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Randomised Control Trial
Subjects are randomised to different treatments under study. Often used to test efficacy of a drug or medical prevention (trying to disprove the placebo affect). Randomisation is done after subjects have been assessed for eligibility and recruited e.
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Double Blind Placebo Control Trial
Neither the patients nor the researchers know who is getting a placebo and who is getting the treatment. Because patients don’t know what they’re getting, their belief about what will happen doesn’t taint the results. Because the researchers don’t kn
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Case Control Studies
Observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of supposed causal attribute. It is used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical condition by comparing subjects who have that
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The variable that can be changed in the experiment

Back

Independent Variable

Card 3

Front

The result of the change

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

From a number of observation, a guard conclusion is drawn

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

From a general premise, specific results are required

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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