Globalisation

PART 1 - Globalisation & Crime: Communicatio Technology
Globalisation is caused by the growth of communication technology, the media and cheap, and quick/reliable travel around the world. This means that ideas, people, and goods flow increasingly across national and international borders.
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PART 2 - Globalisation & Crime: Interconnectivity of Societies
Globalisation refers to increasing interconnectivity of societies around the world, meaning an event in one culture impacts upon others. This has affected all aspects of society including crime.
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PART 3 - Globalisation & Crime: Transnational
One of the key effects of globalisation is that economies and businesses have become transnational. This also means that the criminal economy is no longer restricted to a national level, and a criminal globalised economy has developed.
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PART 1 - Globalisation & Relative Deprivation: Taylor (1997)
Global capitalism has created a greater sense of relative deprivation and inequality causing crimes to flourish. This means that the nature of crime has changed and we have even seen the resurgence of crimes that previously disappeared.
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PART 2 - Globalisation & Relative Deprivation: Taylor (1997)
Piracy; in Nigeria transnational companies drill for oil to meet western demands for this product, which pollutes farmland and fishing stocks. Some Nigerians turned to piracy as a way to cope with poverty as traditional industries got damaged.
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PART 1 - Globalisation & Organised Crime: Legitimate Businesses
globalisation has affected crime is by changing how organised crime works. In the past many sociological studies demonstrated that criminal organisations often operated in a very local and hierarchical fashion much like legitimate businesses.
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PART 2 - Globalisation & Organised Crime: Hobbs and Dunnigham
Organised crime works on a global level. By this they mean that organised crimes gangs are often made up of smaller locally based networks with some global connections that are more flexible and opportunistic than organised crime used to be.
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PART 3 - Globalisation & Organised Crime: Glenny (2008)
Many criminal organisations have developed a business model that is very similar to globalised transnational companies. For example, companies like McDonalds operate on a franchise basis.
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PART 4 - Globalisation & Organised Crime: Glenny (2008)
Chechen Mafia, Russia - Once they were a feared group, they allowed other non-Chechen criminal groups to run criminal operations as long as their brand was not damaged. They are known as the McMafia.
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PART 1 - Globalisation & New Crime: Castells (1998)
The global criminal economy has taken on many forms. For example, he indicates new crimes have developed due to increased communication technology. Cyber crimes (identity theft, child ***********, phishing, hacking) did not exist 20 years ago.
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PART 2 - Globalisation & New Crime: Castells (1998)
Cybercrimes (identity theft, child ***********, phishing, hacking) did not exist 20 years ago. These crimes are common and often backed by organised crime or even nation states - China was recently accused of hacking Google.
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PART 1 - Globalisation & Globalised Capitalism: Supply and Demand
These crimes are often linked to the supply and demands of a global capitalist economy. For example rich countries in the west often demand products from poorer countries, the poor countries often step into the breach to meet the demands.
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PART 2 - Globalisation & Globalised Capitalism: Sex Trafficking
Eastern European girls are often promised by organised criminal gangs a promise of legitimate employment in countries such as the UK only to be sex trafficking victims. This is to meet the demands of the sex market in countries such as the UK.
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PART 3 - Globalisation & Globalised Capitalism: Demand for Drugs
Poorer countries like Columbia (cocaine) and Afghanistan (heroin) often grow crops as they can attract a better price than traditional agriculture. These narcotics are involved in a global smuggling economy to reach destinations like Europe & USA.
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PART 4 - Globalisation & Globalised Capitalism: Criminal Opportunities
Created criminal opportunities for social elites and governments such as transnational companies operating globally so they can commit massive fraud, insider trading and avoid taxation as there is differences in laws in different countries.
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PART 5 - Globalisation & Globalised Capitalism: Deprivation
Companies have moved manufacturing to poorer countries where people will work for less and this causes deprivation and crime in the western countries they have been moved from due to unemployment caused there.
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PART 6 - Globalisation & Terrorism: Muslim Countries
Individuals in strict Muslim countries fear that their country is becoming more westernised, many dislike this and are aware of the controversial policies towards Muslim countries such as the invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan due to the internet.
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PART 7 - Globalisation & Terrorism: Resistance Identities
This means that they become radicalised to carry out international terrorist attacks such as 9/11 or 7/07. The organisation of events was possible due to increased communication technology such as the internet and mobile phones.
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PART 8 - Globalisation & Terrorism: Beck (1996)
Globalisation has caused a 'risk society', this is where increased choice increases individuals feelings of risk.
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PART 9 - Globalisation & Terrorism: Beck (1996)
Faced with the 'threat of international terrorism individuals in Western countries are more likely to accept harsher forms of social control. Governments may use torture in some circumstances therefore creating an increase in state crime.
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PART 1 - Evaluation: Strengths
Globalisation is an up to date and useful approach to examining crime and deviance.
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PART 2 - Evaluation: Strengths
It has also highlighted a number of new and understudied areas of crime and deviance such as green crime and corporate crime.
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PART 3 - Evaluation: Strengths
Globalisation has also raised sociologists' awareness of crimes in different parts of the world and explained how crime and deviance are globally connected.
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PART 4 - Evaluation: Strengths
Even though crime may have increased, the co-operation of different law enforcement agencies allowing them to police crime more effectively across international borders.
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PART 2 - Evaluation: Weaknesses
The secretive and complex nature of global crime make it a difficult area to research e.g. it is difficult to investigate global financial crime as it requires specialist skills and knowledge to do so.
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PART 3 - Evaluation: Weaknesses
It is a relatively recent area of study within sociology and often relies on secondary sources which may be difficult to get hold of (such as reliable statistics).
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PART 4 - Evaluation: Weaknesses
Even though globalisation has made the world more connected, it does not explain why some people have taken up these criminal opportunites and others have not.
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PART 5 - Evaluation: Weaknesses
Many sociologists are highly critical of the process of globalisation and suggest that is only has damaging consequences for society including cultural homogenisation. This is not the case as there are many positives to living on a global level.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Globalisation refers to increasing interconnectivity of societies around the world, meaning an event in one culture impacts upon others. This has affected all aspects of society including crime.

Back

PART 2 - Globalisation & Crime: Interconnectivity of Societies

Card 3

Front

One of the key effects of globalisation is that economies and businesses have become transnational. This also means that the criminal economy is no longer restricted to a national level, and a criminal globalised economy has developed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Global capitalism has created a greater sense of relative deprivation and inequality causing crimes to flourish. This means that the nature of crime has changed and we have even seen the resurgence of crimes that previously disappeared.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Piracy; in Nigeria transnational companies drill for oil to meet western demands for this product, which pollutes farmland and fishing stocks. Some Nigerians turned to piracy as a way to cope with poverty as traditional industries got damaged.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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